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1875-1947 Kenneth W.Jones 1824 founder : Svami Dayananda Saraswati at age 22, he came out from the home and became a wandering sanyasi In November 1860, he met Svami Virajanand and stayed with him for 3 years. After leaving Virajanand, he turned toward reforming contemporary Hinduism. - by study of grammar
- Vedas = arsha (<->unarsha)
- monotheistic, open to all, rationalistic, and compatible with modern science
- rejected all other religions
- published the first Satyarth Prakash (1875) started to preach his own vision of Hinduism 1872 - He spoke in Sanskrit and the main target was brahmanical community. He visited Calcutta and met with leaders of the Brahmo Samaj. - He began to speak in Hindi and the target changed to the literate middle classes of the Hindu community.
- founded schools and published periodicals (first Arya Samaj in 1875)
- published two versions of the Satyarth Parkash (1875, 1883), plus other books and pamphlets 1875 He founded the fist successful Arya Samaj in Bombay. 1877 Dayanada travelled to Delhi for the Durbar and he met with prominent Hindus from the Punjab. - He started to journeyed north India and he stayed in Punjab for 1 year.
- directly or indirectly established the Arya Samaj in 11 different cities
- getting popular among the young college-educated men of Lahore
- ten short, easily grasped principles (July 24, 1877) After visited to Punjab, Dayananda toured the United Provinces, preaching, holding debates, and founding branches of the Arya Samaj. - adding 6 more branches
- less enthusiastic than that of Punjab 1881 In May, he arrived in Rajasthan - hoped to persuade the ruling Hindu princes
- contact with Arya Samajes, but did not provide direction for the young movement 1883 After visiting the state of Jodhpur, he fell seriously ill and died on October 30, 1883. - his death = catalyst for Arya Samajes
- create a memorial to him = a school or college
- Dayanand Anglo-Vedic Trust and Management Society (1886) : saw Dayananda as a great reformer, a teacher and a guide to religious and social practice
heavily involved in the Dayananda Anglo-Vedic College and would be called "College Party" : believed Dayananda to be a rsi or divinely inspired teacher, whose words were infallible
for them Arya Samaj represented a new religion that demanded a total commitment from its followers Founder and Fouding By 1889, school became a college ("Punjab University")
The Lahore school provided a model for local Aryan Samajes. By the end of the century, this single school became the foundation-stone for a system of schools throughout the Punjab, the United Provinces, and adjacent areas. "the moderates" "militants" VS : saw Dayananda as great reformer, a teacher and a guide to religious and social practice
heavily involved in the Dayanand Anglo-Vedic College and would be called the "College Party" : believed Dayananda to be a rsi or divinely inspired teacher, whose words were infallible
for them Arya Samaj represented a new religion that demanded a total commitment from its followers the nature of the education to be provided the new school M : got a school curriculum that was essentially the same as the government and missionary schools, with the addition of Arya Samaj principles M : wanted a dramatically different education, one which would be taught primarily in Hindi and Sanskrit with considerable time devoted to the study of scriptures, Arya writings, and the correct methods needed to interpret Vedic texts soon fused to other issues - vegetarian ? personal matter? = symbolize each party Dayanand Anglo-Vedic Trust and Management Society Arya Prantinidhi Sabha, Punjab - Prantinidhi Sabha : founded in October 1886
the provincial representative body for the Punjab "The moderates retained control over the schools through the Dayananda Anglo -Vedic Management Society." Supporting the Lahore college and its associated school? = But!!!! had lost most of the organizational structure needed to sustain it Financial crisis major task for Ayras "The militants took over the Partinidhi Sabha and a majority of the local Arya Samaj branches." retained the structure and resources But!!!! needed new activities to utilize them two Arya Samajes in many Punjab towns began to establish their own branch Arya Samajes
Arya Pradeshik Pratinidhi Sabha (1903) : a provincial bod parallel to the older Arya Pratinidhi Sabha
The way they consider Hindus?
deep involvement in both the nationalist politics of the Indian National Congress
and later openly Hindu politics of the Punjab Hindu Conference and the Hindu Mahasabha Sharing a similar religious heritage The partition of Bengal in 1905
- a number of the moderate Aryas became politically active, condemning the British government
- opened a period of government suspicion of and hospitality to the Samaj
- why particularly hostile to the moderates?
The last major political shock (1909-1910)
- Sikh state of Patiala arrested numerous Aryas and closed down the local Samajes
Gradually the suppression eased the government made clear approval of religiously-oriented Aryas its schools and supply of activist students Punjab Hindu Conference (October 21-22, 190, in Lahore) Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha Ved prachar : preaching the Vedas
- updeshaks : a system of paid missionaries aimed to transform poplar Hinduism into the 'purer' Vedic form of that religion
- shuddhi : to reconvert Hindus from either Christianity or Islam
- Suddhi Sabha : conducted by Aryas + Shikhs
By 1896 ...
- began to perform shuddhi with groups of people
By 1990 ...
- the uplift of untouchables who were transformed into "pure caste" Hindus On June 23, 1911 at Allahabad, the All India(Bharat) Shuddhi Sabha was founded by Ram Bhaj Datta.
The Arya Samaj had developed shuddhi as a weapon of defense from the conversion threat posed by both Christianity and Islam.
attacks against caste privilege as well as militant efforts at proselytism, conversion, and reconversion
heightened religious competition The militant Aryas, determined to create the new world of Aryanism as envisioned by Dayananda, engaged in radical social reform.
- education for women by founding the Kanya Mahavidyalaya of Jullundur (June 14, 1896)
- remarriage, education for widows,
Tried to create a dramatically different educational system
- Gurukula Kangri (1902) : resident educational institution, teaching from elementary through college level
- Instruction was in Hindi and Sanskrit, with heavy emphasis on religious training
- Its graduates would be the first truly reformed Vedic Aryas. Punjabi Phenomenon Expansion of the Arya Samaj 1891 1901 39,952 92,419 131% During the first 25 years.. - an intensification of the Samaj in two provinces Punjab United Provinces - began to move outward in all directions establishment of new provincial(pratinidhi) sabhas in many places increased need for a central coordinating body Paropkarini Sabha - Dayananda leave behind it as a central organization
- act as the executor of his estate, particularly in regard to his written works
- failed to provide overall leadership for the Arya Samaj : due to the appointive nature of its membership a new coordinating organization that would be able to act on behalf of all Aryas Bharat Dharam Mahamandal meeting in Delhi during 1900
the anniversary celebration of the Gurukula Kangri (1908)
- a subcommittee was chosen to draft the regulations and structure of the proposed Sarvadeship(All-India)Sabha
On September 15, 1908, a full committee met in Agra
On August 31, 1909, the Sarvadeshik Arya Pratinidhi Sabha convened its first meeting in Delhi.
- 27 delegates were elected from six provincial pratinidhi sabhas Punjab remained the sole provincial group outside the newly instituted Sarvadeshik Sabha.
Failed But the Punjabi moderates did cooperate with the Sarvadeshik Sabha on numerous occasions. The Samaj had penetrated into ..
- the Muslim state of Hyderabad during the late 19th century
follow the flow of Indian immigrants abroad
- in 1896 the Satyarth Prakash was carried to Mauritius
- within the next two decades Arya Samaj branches were founded outside of British India
In 1911, two Arya leaders succeeded in publishing the Maruitius Patrika, an Ayra Samaj newspaper.
Naiorbi(1904), Durban, South Africa ...
- South and East Africa became centers of successful Samaj missionary activities
- supported by the local Indian communities In 1933 another period of overseas expansion began
- Pandit Ayodhya Prasad for the World Fellowship of Faith Congress (1933)
- preaching in United States
The next wave of Arya expansion began
- Trinidad : preached and performed shuddhi cenemonies to reclaim Hindus who had converted to Islam and Christinaity
- Dutch Guyana and British Guyana
- Arya Samajes were founded in all these areas
During 1920-1930 overseas Aryas organized their own provincial sabhas
- affiliated with the Sarvadeshik Pratinidhe Sabha
- British East Africa, South Africa, Fiji, Mauritius, Dutch Guyana additional provincial sabhas into the central organization in India
- Bihar joined a separate body (1930)
- a provincial sabha for the Muslim-dominated state of Hyderabad (1935) The creation of new local Samajes led to a continual development of specialized organizations, particularly in education. Dayananda Anglo-Vedic movement began with a single school in Lahore and grew rapidly throughout the province
have complex management structure
- some schools were controlled by the Dayananda Anglo-Vedic Trust and Management Society
- many others were under the administration of local Arya Samajes or various provincial sabhas
- fluid situation
By the 1940s the educational world of the Samaj stretched throughout India (179 schools and 10 colleges in India and Burma)
Gurukula Knagri : became the model for an alternative system of education Schools patterned after it were founded at all levels
- some of these were affiliated with the Arya Pratinidhi Sabha, Punjab, and others were administered locally
In 1921 the original Gurukula became a university and by 1940s there were seven other major institutions in the Gurukula system.
- Kanya Gurukula = women's college
As with the Lahore high school, the Gurukula Kangri became the basis of an entire educational system. Arya Jagat In 1947 the Arya Samaj had evolved into : associations at the local, provincial, and central level - managed and maintained numerous institutions various organizations dedicated to social reform, particularly among the untouchables The Arya Samaj from World war I to Independence The effect of World War I ?
- had little indirect effect on the Arya Samaj
- after the war many Arya Samaj leaders had active involvement with Indian National Congress
Svami Shraddhanand : major figure in the campaign against the Rowlatt Bills
- support Mahatma Gandhi's first non-cooperation campaign
In August 1921, a group of Muslims, the Moplahs of Kerala, rose against the British and their Hindu neighbors.
- also conducted conversions to Islam
- Lala Hans Raj : sponsored a resolution to send help to the Hindus of Kerala
- the prime service the Aryas provided was the institution of shuddhi
- also the orthodox Hindus upheld the shuddhi
- provided financial aid and assited in rebuilding damaged Hindu temples
a major step in the introduction into south India of ideas and institutions developed in the northern areas during times of acute religious conflict
In February 1922, as the non-cooperation campaign stop, north India faced a morass of religious conflict and violence.
- Major riots erupted in many cities
- emerged from inherent points of conflict between Islam and Hinduism
- but each community grew increasingly aggressive about its right
(proselytism, conversion, and reconversion)
Malkana Rajputs : requested re-admission to Hinduism
- All-India Kshatriya Mahasabha agreed to accept it (December 31,1922)
On February 13, 1923, caste sabhas and various Hindu groups met in Agra to plan this proposed reconversion campaign.
- organized Bharatiya Hindu Shuddhi Sabha
- raised funds, supported missionaries, and began an extensive campaign to win back the Malkanas
Muslim groups in north India formed counter-movements to persuade the Malkanas and other remain within the Islamic community.
- Shuddhi(conversion) and Sangathan(unity)
- tanzim and tabligh
Arya Samaj : institutional base + resources of money + manpower = deeply involved
In turn, the Samaj was diverted its program by other demands of communal defense. Mahasaya Rajpal In 1924 he published an Urda tract entitled 'Rangila Rasul'
a vicious attack on the Prophet Muhammad
became a bitter symbol for all aggressive Hinduism
killed on April 3, 1931 by Muslims
The Rajpal affair illustrates the tensions and underlying violence of this period. During this period Arya Samaj
- reacted to such events particularly on the issue of continued caste prejudices within the movement
At the 1992 anniversary celebration of the Lahore Arya Samsaj
- Bhai parmanand : presented vigorous condemnation of the caste system among members of the Samaj
Establishment of Jat-Pat Todak Mandal
- to the removal of all caste distinctions
- first among the Aryas : to facilitate the incorporation of new members brought in through shuddhi caste distinction end to shuddhi communal defense In September 1920, it was decided to hold a centenary celebration of Dayananda's birth at Mauthura.
- February 15-21, 1925
- managing committee members were from ?
- the two wings of Samaj once again worked together
- have two puroposes
- suggested various steps for the Samaj to take
But ! no machinery to carry out a particular program
- Dhram Parishad (religious council), Arya Vidvat Parishad (a learn council), a number of conferences on different religions, a gathering of individuals who had met Dayananda, a poetry conference + various Arya groups held their own sessions
- Arya Vidvat Parishad recommended establishment of Dharmarya Sabha the celebration of Dayananda's birth with all the pomp that could be mustered the passing of resolutions, which provided direction and goals for the movement Dharmarya Sabha
- to decide religious issues and remove doubts within the Samaj
- functioned for 25 years
Second celebration at Tankara
- this meeting was solely in honor of Dayananda
- no working sessions & resolution passed Religious violence turned bitter in 1926 and 1927 with the Arya Samaj a major target of the Islamic community.
- The assassination of Svami Shraddhanand at the close of 1926
- in early 1927 riots in the Bareilly area on the occation of Muharram
- Arya Samaj individuals and buildings were attacked (with the assistance of the local police)
The Sarvadeshik Sabha met on July 24, 1927, and called for a series of meetings to take place in north India on August 7,1927.
- Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis, and Jains, as well as Aryas
- asked to pass resolutions expressing their anger at the apparent police hostility toward Hindus
- send these resolutions to all levels of the government
In September a managing committee was established
- to organize the first Arya Mahasammelan (=great conference)
- took place in Delhi
- to deal with the question of religious violence and of the Hindu community's reaction to it
- became the first of four such conferences to be held prior to Independence Delhi Mahasammelan
- during the conference they passed a series of eighteen resolutions
- accused the government of failing to protect the Hindu community, condemned Muslim violence, called for more extensive shuddhi campaigns etc.
- communal defense + solidarity, on shuddhi and sangathan
- two new institutions were created Arya Raksha (Defense) Committee Arya Vir Dal : founded throughout the Samaj - this militant arm of the Samaj served on a variety of occasions During 1920s there was a number of restrictions imposed on religious demonstrations at both the local and provincial levels.
- take out licenses from the local polices hard to get the permission
- both Hindus and Muslims had become increasingly aggressive in demanding their traditional rights
By 1929 the Arya Pratinidhi Sabha of the United Provinces was engaged in a lengthy quarrel over such limits in that state.
- also arose in Punjab
the Sarvadeshik Sabha decided to hold a second Mahasammelan on Febuary 1931, in Bareilly. Bareilly Mahasammelan
- considered on the needs of the community for self-protection
- Arya Vir Dal : to protect Aryan culture, assist the oppressed, and provide social services
- educational development + internal social reform new resolution
- satyagraha : an important tool for itself and others
- restrictions on various Arya Samaj activities in the major Muslim states the 50th anniversary of Svami Dayananda's death (in Ajmer)
- Special meetings and programs were presented from throughout the Samaj.
- many resolutions were passed
- Arya Vir Dal and the Arya Kumar Sabha met
- the last Mahasammelan for eleven years Arya Samaj attetion began to be increasingly focused on the Muslim-dominated state of Hyerabad.
- By 1932 the first of a series of clashes between the Samaj and the government of Hyderabad took place.
- Arya missionary = political agitator
the Samaj = political organization
- Nizam's government & the British Indian government failed
Also relations between the Hindu majority and the Islamic minority became severly strained.
- in 1935, the Arya Pratinidhi Sabha of Hyderabad was organized
- Nizam's government grew steadily more suspicious of the Samaj
- tensions accelerated until 1938 The Arya Samaj had been particularly active in the Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad
- many Aryas began to engage in satyagraha against the government
- Sarvadeshik Sabha : decided to hold an Arya Conference at Sholapur (December 24-26, 1938)
- also received offers of aid from other Hindu organizations, especially the Hindu Mahasabha A satyagraha campaign against the government had started in October.
- many allies
- Sholapur Conference declared January 22, 1939
- On January 31, 1939, the Arya Samaj began its satyagraha.
- ended when the Nizam's government announced a set of political reform on July 17, 1939
- 8,000 Hindus had been jailed Hindu-Muslim conflicts in the north
The constitutional reforms of 1935 opened the way for parliamentary government in the provinces.
Outbreak of World War II
- the Indian National Congress resigned
- Muslim League
Muslim-dominated government VS Arya Samaj
- by 1943, the government found itself under pressure from various Muslim groups On August 13, 1943, the League passed a resolution urging all Muslim governments and the government of India to ban the Satyarth Prakash.
4th Mahasammelan (in Delhi on February 20-22)
- numerous resolutions were passed
- but the issues in Sind and relations between Hindus, Muslims, and the British regime were still remained
The Sind government vacillated but finally on October 26, 1944, banned the Satyarth Prakash In August 1945, the Sind government announced a modification of its ruling
on January 1, 1947, the All-India Satyarth Defense Committee led by Mahatma Narayan Svami announced that :
" The Sind provincial elections are now over. People of Sind cannot now legitimately ask for further postponement of Satyagraha on the issed of ban on the Satyarth Prakash in Sind." On January 14, 1947, the satyagrapha campaign began in earnest and was over by the 20th. Partition and Independence
- lost property and valuable institutions
- in the area of the newly-created state of Pakistan
- thousands of its members became refugees
In the 1950s and 1960s the Samaj went through a period of re-establishing lost institutions and re-organizing itself