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Chapter 7 Networks of Communication and Exchange 300 BCE-600 CE
Transcript of Chapter 7 Networks of Communication and Exchange 300 BCE-600 CE
Communication 1. Han Dynasty created a 5,000 mile stretch of trade routes 1. 1. Parthians helped spread customs, through steppe nomads, father to east and fostering the Silk Road 1. Zhang Jiam considered the originator of overland trade by introducing wine, alfalfa, and new plants and trees to China 1. Alfalfa 1. Trade flourished in 100 BCE because Greeks could buy China's silk from Parthians traders in Mesopotamia. 2. where? 2. Across the Afro-Eurasian landmass that connect East, South, and Western Asia with the Mediterranean and European World. Also part of North and East Africa 2. who? 3. 3. China, India, Persia,
Europe, and Arabia 3. Asia and Europe
indirectly establish their first contact 1. Wine 4. TRADED
ITEMS 4. TRADE PRIMARILY MOVED
FROM EAST TO WEST 4. SILK WAS A LARGE EXPORT FROM
CHINA, AND ITS MANUFACTURE WAS
A HEAVILY GUARDED SECRET. 4. IN ADDITION TO ALFALFA AND WINE GRAPES, CHINESE FARMERS ADOPTED PISTACHIOS, WALNUTS, POMEGRANATES, SESAME, CORIANDER, SPINACH, AND OTHER NEW CROPS. 4. CHINESE ARTISANS AND PHYSICIANS ALSO MADE GOOD USE OF OTHER TRADE PRODUCTS, SUCH AS JASMINE OILS, OAKS GALLS, SAL AMMONIAC, COPPER OXIDES, ZINC, AND PRECIOUS STONES. 4. Traders going west from China carried peaches and apricots, cinnamon, ginger, and other spices that could not be grown in the West. 4. Mesopotamia received cotton, sugar cane, rice, citrus trees, eggplants, and other crops they adopted from India and China. THE "PORK"
ISSUE? 5. 5. Southeast Asia was an important early center for pig domestication and it became highly ritualized and ceremonial to eat pork. 5. Some wild pigs were common in the Nile swamps, but were often associated with the evil god, Set, and were forbidden to be eaten. 5. The biblical prohibition on the Israelites' eating park was later echoed by the Muslims. 6. IDEAS THAT SPREAD
SILK ROAD 6. BUDDHISM- competed against Nestorian Christianity, Manichaeism, and Zoroastrianism. 6. Christianity- Politicization of religion greatly affected the culture of the Silk Road Zoroastrianism- 6. Established as a state religion by the Sasanids after the Parthians 6. Military Improvements Chariot warfare, mounted bowmen, and the stirrup, 7. Silk
Impacts Silk Road Missionary Influences 7. Religious Diversity Spread of
Domestication Indian Ocean
Maritime 1. Where? 1. Trade network across the Indian Ocean
and the South China Sea. 2. History of Trade on
the Indian Ocean 2. Fifth century B.C.E. Greek writers wrote of marvelous voyages 2. Discovery of great monsoons 2. vessels relied on roughly triangular lateen sails and normally did without before catching wind 2. Migrations from Southeast Asia to Madagascar
sailing canoes 3. Who? 3. Africans, Indians,
and Malays 4. TRADED ITEMS 4. AFRICA produced
exotic animals, wood, and ivory 4. northern Somalia and southern Arabia grew the scrubby trees whose aromatic resins were valued as frankincense and myrhh 4. Pearls were abundent in the Persian Gulf 4. India shipped spices and manufactured good 4. China shipped out porcelains and pottery 5. Importance of Periplus
Erythraean Sea 5. Greek periplus, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and India 6. Impacts 6. families established by sailors and merchants were bilingual and bicultural
women were mediators between cultures Persians, Sahara 1. Trade
Routes Who? 2. 3. Trade items 4. The LAND. 5. BANTU. 1. trans-Saharan carvan routes 2. Algerians, Nigerians, Malians, and Sahels 3. Traders from equitorial region brought kola nuts, palm oil. 3. roman colonists sbrought wheat and olives 4. Steppes of Sahel region, tropical savanna covered by long grasses and scattered forest, and tropical rain forest on the lower Niger and in the Zaire Basin 5. Niger-Congo family of languages the distribution of Bantu language, both north and south of the equator is consistent with divergence 5. likely mechanism for upward spread of early iron smelting and spread of iron Mackenzie Vineyard