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Dr. Jose Rizal: The Departure to Europe

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Aaron Gonzales

on 12 March 2015

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Transcript of Dr. Jose Rizal: The Departure to Europe

• To operate on his mother’s eye.
• To serve his people who had long been oppressed by Spanish tyrants.
• To find out for himself how the Noli
and his other writings were affecting Filipinos and Spaniards in the Philippines.
• To inquire why Leonor Rivera
(his girlfriend) remained silent.

why he returned to the Philippines:
Rizal left Philippines for the first time. He boarded the
Spanish Streamer Salvadora
using a passport of Jose Mercado, which was procured for him by his uncle Antonio Rivera, father of Leonor Rivera. He was accompanied to the quay where the Salvadora was moored by his uncle Antonio, Vicente Gella, and Mateo Evangelista.
MAY 3, 1882
Rizal's Secret Mission
Dr. Jose Rizal:
First Travel Abroad

The purpose of his secret departure for Spain is to
avoid detection
by the Spanish authorities and friars. Paciano, his only brother, knew about his secret departure for Spain.
To observe keenly the
life and culture, languages and customs, industries and commerce,
governments and laws
of the European nations in order to prepare himself in the mighty task of liberating his oppressed people from Spanish tyranny.
Rizal was the only Filipino, the rest were;
Indian Negros
Captain Donato Lecha
The ship captain from Asturias, Spain.

Rizal described him as:
"affable man, who is more refined than his own countrymen and colleagues"

- The Salvadora docked at Singapore
Hotel de La Paz
- Rizal registered here and spent two days on a sightseeing soiree of the city, which was a colony of England.
May 9, 1882
May 11, 1882
- He boarded the ship Djemnah (French Streamer)
May 17, 1882
Djamnah reached Point Galle, a seacoast town in southern Ceylon (now Sri Lanka)
May 18, 1882
Rizal reached Colombo, capital of Ceylon.
Rizal wrote:
"Colombo is more beautiful, smart and elegant than Singapore, Point Galle and Manila"
- city hotter than Manila; Rizal was amused to see the camels, for the first time

City of Suez
- The Red Sea terminal of the Suez Canal
Rizal was impressed in the beautiful moonlight which reminded him of Calamba and his family

Suez Canal
- Canal which built by
Ferdinand de Lesseps
(French diplomat-engineer) which was inaugurated on November 17, 1869

Port Said
- the Mediterranean terminal of the Suez Canal
To Europe:
June 11, 1882
- He reached Naples
“Is the capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy, after Rome and Milan"
June 12, 1882
- the steamer docked at the French harbor of Marseilles
Rizal visited the famouse
Chateau d’If
, where Dantes, hero of the Count of Monte Cristo was imprisoned
Rizal stayed two and a half days in Marseilles
Chateau d' If
Afternoon of
June 15, 1882
– Rizal left Merseilles by train for the last lap of his trip to Spain
• Rizal crossed the Pyreness and stopped for a day at the frontier town of
Port Bou
June 16, 1882
- Rizal finally reached his destination –

• Rizal’s first impression of Barcelona, the greatest city of Cataluña and Spain’s second largest city was unfavorable
Las Ramblas
– the most famous street in

Amor Patrio (Love of Country)
– nationalistic essay, Rizal’s first article written on Spain’s soil

• Under his pen-name
Laong Laan
, appeared in print in Diariong Tagalog on
August 20, 1882

• It was published in two texts –
Spanish and Tagalog
– the Spanish text was the one originally written by Rizal in Barcelona, the tagalog text was a Tagalog translation made by
M.H. del Pilar

Basilio Teodoro Moran

– a friend of Rizal in Manila and the publisher of Diariong Tagalog where Rizal sent this article
• Diariong Tagalog

– the first Manila bilingual newspaper (Spanish and Tagalog)
• Los Viajes (Travels)

– Rizal’s second article for Diariong Tagalog
• Rizal received sad news about the
that was ravaging Manila and the provinces according to Paciano’s letter, dated
September 15, 1882
• Another sad news from the Philippines was the
chatty letter of
recounting the unhappiness of
Leonor Rivera

• In one of his letters (
dated May 26, 1882
) Paciano advised his younger brother to finish the medical course in Madrid
• On in all it had been a wonderful and exciting voyage. However, he was troubled by strage dreams. The first one occurred when he was in Singapore. He had dreamed that Paciano had died suddenly. These dreams he thought were expressions of doubt and remorse of keeping his trip secret to his parents.
Life In Madrid
November 3, 1882

Rizal enrolled In the
Universidad Central de Madrid (Central University of Madrid)
in two courses –
Medicine and Philosophy

• Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando
– Rizal studied painting and sculpture

•Rizal spent his leisure time reading and writing at his boarding house, attending the reunions of Filipino students at the house of the Paterno brothers (Antonio, Maximo and Pedro) and practicing fencing and shooting at the gymnasium
He wrote
La Señorita
, a poem dedicated to
Consuelo Ortiga y Rey (C.O. y R)
: written on
August 22, 188
He led a SPARTAN (disciplined life)
Rizal’s only extravagance was investing a few pesetas for a lottery ticket in every draw of the Madrid Lottery

• During his first summer vacation in Madrid, Rizal went to Paris, gay capital of France
• The prices of food, drinks, theatre, tickets, laundry, hotel accommodations, and transportation were too high for Rizal’s slender purse so that he commented in a letter to his family: “
Paris is the costliest capital in Europe.”
June 17- August 20
- Journeying to Paris
March 1883
- Rizal joined the Masonic lodge called Acacia in Madrid
Rizal’s reason for becoming a mason was to secure aid in his fight against the friars in the Philippines
Lodge Solidaridad (Madrid)
– Rizal transferred where he became a Master Mason on
November 15, 1890
Financial worries: Failure of farm produce due to drought and locusts
• Evening of
June 25, 1884
- Rizal's Salute to Luna and Hidalgo

Juan Luna
won First prize
Christian Virgins Exposed to the Populace
- by
Felix Hidalgo
won second prize

November 20, 21, and 22, 1884
- the serene city of Madrid exploded in bloody riots by the students of the Central University

Dr. Miguel Moraya
- professor of history; his address resulted to student demonstrations
The next academic year (1884-1885)
, Rizal studied and passed all subjects leading to the degree of Doctor of Medicine but he did not present the thesis required for graduation nor paid the corresponding fees, he was not awarded his Doctor’s diploma
June 19, 1885
- on his 24th birthday, Rizal was awarded the degree of Licentiate in Philosophy and Letters by the Universidad Central de Madrid with the rating of
: (Sobresaliente)
November, 1885
- left Paris

Rizal went to
Paris and Germany
in order to specialize in
—Rizal chose this branch of medicine because he wanted to cure his mother’s eye ailment

Maximo Viola
- a medical student and a member of a rich family of San Miguel, Bulacan, Rizal’s friend

Señor Eusebio Corominas
- editor of the newspaper La Publicidad and made a crayon sketch of Don Miguel Morayta, owner of La Publicidad and a stasman
German scientists he met:
Dr. Feodor Jagor, Dr. Hans Meyer, Dr. Adolph B. Meyer, and Dr. Rudolph Virchow

Rizal served as an assistant
to Dr. Louis de Wecker, French ophthalmologist (1852-1906)

Outside of his working hours at Dr. Wecker’s clinic, Rizal relaxed by visiting his friends: Family of
Pardo de Taveras (Trinidad, Felix and Paz)
Juan Luna
- engaged to
Paz Pardo de Tavera
- a pretty girl
Felix Ressurreccion Hidalgo
Masons scrutinized and criticized the methods of the government and criticized the haughty friars, a freedom which could not be practiced in the Philippines.
Historic Heidelberg:

February 1, 1886
- left gay Paris for Germany

• Worked at the
University Eye Hospital under Dr. Otto Becker
distinguished German Opthalmologist

July 31, 1886
– Rizal wrote his first letter in German to Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt, director of the Ateneo of Leitmeritz, Austria

- was cheapest in Europe, so he stayed two months & a half 2(1/2)

• Worked as
proof- reader
in a publishers firm (bec. Of his knowledge of German, Spanish & other European languages)

October 29, 1886
- left Leipzig for
where he met
Dr. Adolph B. Meyer

– director of the Anthropologist & Ethnological Museum.

November 1, 1886
– left Dresden by train reaching Berlin in the evening

Historic Heidelberg:
Rizal Welcomed in Berlin's
Scientific Circles
• He met for the 1st time
Dr. Feodor Jagor
a German scientist-traveler & author of Travels in the Philippines

• Dr Jagor introduced Rizal to
Dr. Rodulf Virchow
, a famous
German anthropologist
; son of
Dr. Hans Virchow

• He worked in a clinic of
Dr. Karl Ernest Schweigger
a famous German ophthalmologist.

Rizal’s 5 reasons in living the famous Capital of Unified Germany
• To gain further knowledge of ophthalmology
• To pursue his studies of sciences & languages
• To observe that the economy had political conditions of the German nation
• To associate with famous German scientists and scholars
• To publish his novel, Noli Me Tangere

*by day, Rizal worked as an assistant in the clinic of Dr. Schweigger

*at night, he attended lectures in the University of Berlin

Rizal’s darkest winter: On the bleak winter of 1886, he experienced the following:
• He lived in poverty at Berlin; the diamond ring which his sister, Saturna gave was pawned; he could not pay his landlord. He ate only once a day (bread & water or some cheap vegetable soup). His clothes were old and threadbare. He washes his own clothes since he could not afford laundry. Paciano was delayed in raising necessary funds. Rizal starved in Berlin and shivered with wintry cold; began to cough & feared that he was going to be sick with tuberculosis.

• Brought him great joy after enduring so much suffering because his
1st novel Noli Me Tangere
came off the press in
March, 1887.

• Noli Me Tangere published in
Berlin (1887)
, dedicated to the Philippines,
“To my Fatherland”.
The idea of writing a Novel on the Philippines was inspired by
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin

• On
January 2, 1884
, at a reunion of Filipinos at the Paterno residence in Madrid, Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines by a group of Filipinos. Unfortunately, Rizal’s project did not materialize because almost everybody wanted to write on women and his companions wasted their time gambling or flirting with Spanish señoritas. So, Rizal wrote the novel alone.
• February 21, 1887
- Noli Me Tangere was finally Finished and ready for printing
• Chief of police in Berlin visited Rizal’s boarding house asking for passport. Rizal had none. Chief told him to secure a passport within four days.

• Rizal, accompanied by Viola, went to the Spanish ambassador, the Court of Benomar. But the ambassador failed to keep him promise because he had no power to issue the required passport.
Rizal suspected as French spy:
• Rizal presented himself at the office of the German Police chief at the expiration of the four-day ultimatum.

• Police chief received intelligence reports that Rizal has frequent visits to villages & little towns in the rural areas. Resided there where he was apparently a lover of France. ( France & Germany relationship was strained on account of Alsace-Lorraine)

• Rizal, fluent in German told the police chief that he was not a French spy but a Filipino physician, an ethnologist.
Rizal’s Grand Tour in Europe with Maximo Viola (1887)

• Dr. Maximo Viola was his companion during his tour in Europe.

• In
(now Decin, Czechoslovakia) the first meeting with Prof. Blumentritt.

• It was during their tour in Europe, an Exposition of the Philippines was also held in Madrid, Spain. The primitive Igorots were exhibited in this exhibition.

*July 3, 1887
-Rizal boarded the steamer Djemnah, the same streamer which brought him to Europe 5 years ago
*July 30, 1887
, Rizal transferred to another steamer,
, which was Manila-bounded
*August 2, 1887
- the steamer left Saigon for Manila
*August 3, 1887
- the moon was full and Rizal slept soundly the whole night. The calm sea, illuminated by the silvery moonlight, was a magnificent sight to him
*Near midnight of
August 5, 1887, the Haiphong arrived in Manila
August 8, 1887
- Rizal returned to Calamba
• In Calamba, Rizal established a medical clinic. His first patient was his mother, who was almost blind.
• Rizal, who came to be called
“Doctor Uliman”
because he came from Germany, treated their ailments and soon he acquired a lucrative medical practice
Governor General Emilio Terero sent him a letter,
requesting him to come to Malacanang Palace.
• Eight Pamphlets (Questions of Supreme Interest) to blast the Noli and other anti-Spanish writings written by Fr. Rodriguez were sold daily in the churches after Mass.

• Lt. Jose Taviel de Andrade, assigned bodyguard for Rizal by the generosity of Gov. Gen. Terero.

• Opened a gymnasium to introduce European sports, gymnastics, fencing, and shooting to discourage cockfighting and gambling.

• One failure in his trip: He was not able to see Leonor Rivera.

• Upon advice of Terero, Rizal had to leave the Philippines to avoid danger.
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