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Grade 9 Geography SMUS - 3rd rock from the sun - A Henderson

Earth rotation: day and night, time zones, seasons, latitude and longitude

A Henderson

on 3 March 2015

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Transcript of Grade 9 Geography SMUS - 3rd rock from the sun - A Henderson

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
The earth spins on its axis
What does this have to do with geography?
From this we can explain lots of geographical phenomenon like day and night, seasons, and we can begin to understand the lines and grid system that will allow us to locate places on the earth
Take a globe and in a small group see if you can describe some of the ways the earth rotates in space
You have been given a diagram explaining the revolution or orbit of the earth and the progression of the seasons but you need to complete the annotations on this.
Add the sub-solar points (part of earth closest to sun) for each season: Equator, Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn
Solstices and equinoxes and dates of these: 21 March, 21 June, 23 September, 21 December

Earth spins
24hr rotation
365.25 day orbit
Axial tilt 23.5°
The Earth spins on its axis from west to east which means that the sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west
One complete rotation takes about 24 hours and results in day and night
The Earth revolves around the Sun
One complete revolution takes 365 ¼ days
The angle of the tilt does vary between about 21-24° over long time periods
Sub-solar point is the latitude where the Sun's rays are directly overhead at noon
The earth tilts on its axis - 23.5° degrees to the vertical
The sub-solar point therefore fluctuates between 23.5° north (Tropic of Cancer) and 23.5° south (Tropic of Capricorn).
When the summer is overhead in one of the tropics that is called a solstice.
An equinox occurs when the sun’s rays are directly overhead at the Equator
An equinox occurs when the sun’s rays are directly overhead at the Equator
This occurs on June 21st, the first official day of summer in the northern hemisphere
In Canada this is the longest day of the year
June 21st is the winter solstice in the southern hemisphere!
March 21st is the Spring equinox in the northern hemisphere and the Fall equinox in the southern hemisphere
September 23rd is the Fall equinox in the northern hemisphere and the Spring equinox in the southern hemisphere
Task instructions
Plenary and homework
Again working in small groups with the globes
In turn take the globes and explain to your partner the different types of earth movemement in space and the phenomen they affect on earth
Copy the homework questions down and help each other start to answer them. Written answers should be completed for homework.
1. Why is it dark (night) in Beijing while it is day and light in Vancouver?
2. Why is it always dark in Arctic Canada around Christmas?
3. What is a leap year and why does it exist?

Task instructions
Complete the tasks on the given worksheet (Latitude and Longitude double sided)
Again you will need to share the globe within your group
Latitude and longitude in more detail
Latitude and longitude make up the grid system that helps us identify absolute, or exact, locations on the Earth’s surface. You can use latitude and longitude to identify specific locations.
When giving coordinates we first say how many degrees north or south somewhere is (from the equator) then how far west or east it is (from the Prime Meridian running through Greenwich).
Degrees are divided into 60 minutes. One minute can be further divided into 60 seconds. Example: 45°25’30”N, 75°42’00”W
When used properly this will pinpoint a location to within a few metres.
45°25’30”N, 75°42’00”W is the location of Ottawa, more precisely the Canadian parliament
5. Discuss with students why and when latitude and longitude are helpful map tools.
Have students share why latitude and longitude are helpful map tools. Prompt them to explain how latitude and longitude can help them to identify specific locations. Ask: How easy or difficult would it be to pinpoint a location on a globe without using a coordinate system? Explain.
Parallel lines of latitude run east west.
The equator is at latitude 0°. Lines diminish in length towards the poles at 90° N and 90°S.
Other significant parallels are the Tropic of Cancer at 23.5°N, Tropic of Capricorn at 23.5°S, Arctic Circle at 66.5°N and the Antarctic Circle at 66.5°S.
Meridian (meaning they divide in half) lines pass through both Poles.
The Prime Merdian was established at Greenwich, London and all other points on the earth are east or west of this.
The 180° Meridian forms (most of) the International Date Line
Finish your worksheet called 'Latitude and Longitude' if necessary.
If you need some further instruction on the concept of latitude and longitude the atlas (Oxford edition 8) has a good explanation from page 6 onwards

Play the Battleship game
Complete the worksheet 'Atlas navigation' using the Oxford edition 8 version.
Atlas introduction
Atlas and Longitude and Latitude
Now you are going to apply your skills by using the atlas to find places using latitude and longitude
Worksheet 'Using latitude and longitude to find places'
Extension task - find these places in the atlas and write the coordinates for them.
Montreal, Canada
Tokyo, Japan
Paris, France
Beijing, China
Mexico City, Mexico
Check your answer by finding them in the index at the back of the atlas.
Further atlas skills (or defer these until later) and start looking at GPS and then geocaching or even do the google earth exercise on lat and long
Detective mission
Crafty robbers broke into the Royal Geographical Society in London and stole armfuls of priceless maps. Finding them would be hopeless, except that they dropped a scrap of paper with some odd scribbles on it.

At the top is a rhyme that seems to be an instruction from the thieves' boss:

First letters from each place-name read.
Spell out the town and come with speed.
The numbers, you realize, are the coordinates for cities all over the planet.
(1) Find those places in an atlas or on a map.
(2) As you find each place, write its name next to the coordinates.
(3) Circle the first letter of each name.
(4) Read the letters from top to bottom, and they should spell the name of a city. Now you know where to nab those cartographic crooks.
Option 1. Pirate mission

Option 2. Design your own latitude and longitude puzzle
It can be based on an atlas or online like google earth.
Learning Goal
I can use a globe to demonstrate how the earth moves in space and explain how this affects time and seasons.
I can pinpoint locations on the earth using latitude and longitude.
Learning Goal
3rd rock from the sun was a sitcom about aliens visiting earth (or the 3rd rock from the sun) and getting accquantated with our ways
Collect a globe
Meridians converge at the poles and are farthest apart at the equator (about 69 miles (111 km) apart).
Globes & Lines of Latitude
Lines of Latitude (Parallels)

1. Put your finger on the Equator. Trace the Equator around the globe with your finger.
2. Where is the Equator?
a. What is its number?
b. List 5 countries that the Equator passes through.
c. Name the two halves that the Equator divides the Earth into.
3. Lines of latitude north of the Equator are called degrees north (i.e.: they are in the northern hemisphere). Lines of latitude south of the Equator are called degrees south (i.e.: they are in the southern hemisphere).
4. Turn the globe on end so that you have the North Pole (90°N) facing you. Observe the parallel concentric circles that the lines of latitude form.
a. Which circle is the largest?
b. Which circle is the smallest?
c. Why are lines of latitude also called parallels?
5. Find the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Trace both of them with your finger.
a. What is the number for the Tropic of Cancer?
b. List 5 countries that the Tropic of Cancer passes through.
c. What is the number for the Tropic of Capricorn?
d. List 5 countries that the Tropic of Capricorn passes through.

6. Find the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle. Trace both of them with your finger.
a. What is the number for the Arctic Circle?
b. List 2 countries that the Arctic Circle passes through.
c. What is the number for the Antarctic Circle?
7. Find the North Pole and South Pole.
a. What is the number for the North Pole?
b. What is the number for the South Pole?

Globes and Longitude
10. Find the Greenwich Meridian. Trace if with your finger. Notice how all meridians pass through the North and South Poles.
a. What is the Greenwich Meridian’s number? List 5 countries that the Greenwich Meridian passes through.

11. Find the International Date Line. What is its number? Trace it with your finger.
a. Why do you think that the International Date Line is not straight?

12. Lines of longitude (meridians) from the Greenwich Meridian to 180°E are named degrees east. Meridians from the Greenwich Meridian to 180°W are called degrees west. Look at how this works on your globe.

Homework questions
Optional Extension
There is a nice Canadian link to the time zones question that you may wish to explore. Clue: Sir Sandford Fleming.
Time zones now or after latitude and longitude
There are other formats
Signed degree format ddd.dddd
e.g. 41.25 and -120.9762
A latitude or longitude with 8 decimal places pinpoints a location to within 1 millimeter

DMS + compass direction formats
These formats use degrees, minutes, and seconds. For the following formats:
- Latitudes range from 0 to 90.
- Longitudes range from 0 to 180.
- Use N, S, E or W as either the first or last character, which represents a compass direction North, South, East or West.
- The last degree, minute, or second of a latitude or longitude may contain a decimal portion.
- May or may not contain the degrees symbol (°)

- Degrees minutes seconds formats (DDD MM SS + compass direction) e.g. 41 25 01N and 120 58 57W
- Degrees minutes formats (DDD MM + compass direction) e.g. 41 25N and 120 58W
- Degrees only formats (DDD + compass direction) e.g. 41 N and 120 W
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