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The Anatomy of a Chemical Equation

Balancing Chemical Reactions

Jessica DeSerio

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of The Anatomy of a Chemical Equation

4Al + 3O Balancing Chemical Reactions The Anatomy of a Chemical Equation Reactants Products (s) 2 (g) 2 3 (s) 2Al O Phase of Matter Subscripts Yields Number of Atoms Coefficients How much of an element or compound you have Measured in Moles Balancing Chemical Equations: Purpose of balancing equations is to figure out how much of a substance you will need for a reaction to take place and to show that mass is in fact conserved! ("Stuff" wasn't produced from "nothing") Lets say you wanted to produce ammonia in the lab The formula for ammonia is NH
You would need:
Hydrogen gas & Nitrogen gas to make ammonia N What do we know about how the elements H and N exist in nature? H + NH They occur in nature as diatomic elements 3 H N 2 2 N H NH 2 2 3 + Will this reaction take place? What's wrong? + N 2 H 2 NH 3 Where did the extra hydrogen come from?
What happened to the nitrogen atom? 3 Procedure for Balancing Chemical Equations Rules for Balancing 1. All formulas for compounds must be correct. 2. Add coefficients ONLY to balance atoms (no subscripts) 3. Balance the atoms in the largest compound first. 4. Balance monatomic & diatomic elements last. 5. Balance polyatomic ions as one piece (keep together) 6. Check to be sure that the # of atoms are the same on both sides. 7. Reduce all coefficients to the lowest whole number ratio Example N 2 + H 2 NH 3 N = 2 H = 2 N = 1 H = 3 Notice the atoms are not balanced on both sides. This goes against the Law of Conservation of Mass! We can add coefficients to balance the atoms. Example Ca(NO ) 3 2 + H 2 SO 4 CaSO 4 + HNO 3 The Law of Conservation of Mass Matter can neither be created or destroyed We can think about conservation of mass in terms of atoms or gram amounts!
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