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CENTRALIA, PA

English 111, WCC, Tucker, S44 Winter Term
by

Lorraine Mayzlin

on 24 April 2013

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Transcript of CENTRALIA, PA

CENTRALIA, PENNSYLVANIA
~~~~The real Silent Hill~~~(r) a HOT topic since 1962 What Started the fire? According to several resources, the fire started when an open vein of Anthracite Coal caught fire after city workers lit a garbage dump on fire to dispose of trash. This was a routine practice for the city, at the time. GETTING THERE Why it's burning, and what is the fuel? 76.341741 degrees W longitude,
40.803291 degrees N latitude.

483 miles from Ann Arbor, MI
264 miles from Buffalo, NY
154 miles from Manhattan, NY
111 miles from Philadelphia, PA

not much to see anymore, only a couple municipal buildings remain standing but vacant. Church remains, Good Fellows cemetery remains. (s -capsule) Understanding the six different types of coal:
Peat: considered precursor of coal, highly absorbant, used
to condition soil to retain more water.
Lignite: aka brown coal, lowest rank of actual coal, used almost exclusively as fuel for electric power generation. Jet is compact form, and has been used since Upper Paleolithic.
Sub-bituminous: used for steam-electric power generation, important light aromatic hydrocarbons for chemical synthesis industry.
Bituminous: dense sedimentary rock, usually black. primary for steam-electric power and some used for heat and power applications to make coke.
Anthracite: highest rank of coal in the world. hardest of all coal designations, hardest to light and longest to burn. Glossy black used for residential and commercial space heating. highest carbon content, fewest impurities. Anthracite accounts for 1% of global coal resources. Pennsylvania is the only place in US that has Anthracite.
Graphite: TECHNICALLY this is the highest rank of coal, but hard to ignite and not used as fuel. used in pencils and as a powdered lubricant. Cost to use Anthracite High quality, costs 2 - 3 times more than regular coal, and in 2008, wholesale cost was $150 per short ton.Current production averages 5 MILLION tons per year. PA mines contribute 1.8 million tons, and adds 1% to the gross state product, employing more than 2000 workers. Who Has Anthracite? 1% of global coal reserves, China has the lion's share. Russia, Ukraine, North Korea, Vietnam, the UK, Australia and the United States all have Anthracite.
Total production worldwide in 2010 was 670 Million tons. Commonwealth States In a commonwealth state, property owners own
what is on the ground (house, grass, buildings, etc)
and what is UNDER the ground.

For Centralia residents, this means that they OWN the Anthracite that is under their property. It has been long believed that the government's demolition of their town in the 1980's was part of a plot to take the mineral rights away from property owners because it is worth MILLIONS of dollars.

Once Centralia ceases to exist, the rights go to the state, which could sell them to a coal company to operate one of the most productive strip mine operations in the United States.

Property is being taken by eminent domain. 2012 Update As of 2012, the Commonwealth Court has denied another attempt by the remaining property owners to keep their land.
Seven people, including the Borough Council President claimed condemnation no longer is needed because the fire has moved and the air quality in the county is the same as everywhere else.
Of the residents that remained in 2012, no one else had gotten sick from the gasses of this fire, contrary to the government's position. How Many Uncontrolled Coal Mine Fires?
(M-world/US stats) WORKS CITED
http://archive.unu.edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu21le/uu21le07.htm
http://www.osmre.gov/index.shtm
http://www.fossil.energy.gov/education/energylessons/coal/gen_coal.html
http://www.readinganthracite.com/about-reading-anthracite/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centralia,_Pennsylvania
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/energy/2013/01/pictures/130108-centralia-mine-fire/
http://teeic.anl.gov/er/coal/restech/uses/
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/27447/anthracite
http://www.offroaders.com/album/centralia/study/ESL201Paper.htm
http://discovermagazine.com/2010/jul-aug/28-earth-on-fre#.UVxzK1eWzak
http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/310/381/case.html
http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/225/219
http://www.msha.gov/District/Dist_01/History/history.htm
http://www.topix.com/forum/city/brookville-in/TR5OR1PMQP8GMTP9R
http://himedo.net/TheHopkinThomasProject/TimeLine/IndustrialRevAmerica/Coal/CoalHome.htm
http://50.116.99.193/~paanthra/about-us/
http://www.scribd.com/doc/54547296/Impacts-of-Coal-Mine-Fire-on-Environment
http://news.linktv.org/videos/50-years-later-underground-fire-still-burning
http://esslerosey.blogspot.com/
http://www.earthmagazine.org/article/rising-global-interest-coal-fires
http://www.nist.gov/el/index.cfm
http://pierce.wesleyancollege.edu/faculty/dedwards/research/centralia/main.html
http://www.csmonitor.com/1983/1129/112912.html/(page)/2
http://www.geotimes.org/oct02/geophen.html Lorrie
Ryan
Sedric
Mac
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