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The management and operation of Food Service
Transcript of The management and operation of Food Service
- Quick service food
- Room service
- Fine Dining
- Employee dinning room
- Night Club Food Service in the U.S. 1. Samuel Cole had opened the first American tavern in 1634.
2. The first coffeehouse in Boston was established in 1670.
3. About 1740, the first stagecoaches began to roll out of Boston and provided new customers for the inn or tavern.
4. Following the American Revolution, French cuisine became quite popular.
5. In 1815, Robert Owen established a large eating room for workers and their families, and industrial food service began in America.
6. The Delmonico brothers opened the first of many eating establishment in 1827, a cake and wine shop on William Street in New York City.
7. Following the birth of the American restaurant, the next important milestone in commercial food service was the development of the cafeteria.
8. Two other aspects of American food service that have their roots in Europe include school food service and hospital food service. Food Service Industry Food Service Industry Purchases Food & Beverage Growth Growth of Food & Beverage Sales What is Food Service? Food service is a large industry which deals with the preparation and service of food outside the home. Catering a wedding, establishing a restaurant, and running a cafeteria are all forms of food service. Sanitation Key areas of common food safety risks in day-to-day food production:
Keep cool foods below 40°F and hot foods above 140°F
Most occurs in food preparation
- Poor personal hygiene Common Food Safety Mistakes The more sanitation practices built into a system:
- The more likely they will be carried out
Personnel trained in the system are carried along by it
- Systematize sanitation practices:
Build them into the manager's daily schedule Food Protection as a System Make money!!! The impact of food service on the economy
Total food service sales were $536.4 billion in 2007
Food service employs 13.1 million people Importance of the Food Service Department How to make a lot of money? Food service industry is making money Importance of the Food Service Department A Recipe for Success in Food Service
-Excellent Food and Beverage Products
-Excellent management Controls Importance of the Food Service Department Excellent Environment
-Be located in or near a community or near important intersections
-Guests are very concerned about the restaurant building and grounds
-Having the theme Importance of the Food Service Department Excellent Service
-Primarily a matter of attitude and beings with that of management
-The manager of any restaurant have to understand that guests like to be recognized
-Guests want to go back to a restaurant Importance of the Food Service Department Excellent Food and Beverage Products
-The food is being served tasted better, looks better, and receives favorable comments from guests
-Purchase excellent products Importance of the Food Service Department Excellent Value
-It is to talk to guests and sing out if they think that they got their money’s worth
-Having many repeat guests proves that the restaurant is giving excellent value
-A low-check-average restaurant can lose guests
-Also relate to the size and cleanliness of the parking lot, the restrooms, the appearance of the restaurant, the price, and other Importance of the Food Service Department Excellent Management Controls
-To ensure that what is purchased is received
-What is received is properly stored and issued
-The products are prepared and served properly
-All income is collected
-All money is deposited in the bank
-All bills are paid Importance of the Food Service Department Food service industry was growing, developing, and changing during the twentieth century
Food service sales grew from $45 billion in 1970 to $118 billion in 1980 Importance of the Food Service Department Because the largest fast-food franchising chains had their greatest growth period in 1970
McDonald’s, Wendy’s, Burger King, Kentucky Fried Chicken, and others It had a great influence Fast-food chains were growing
American public’s greatly increase interest in food, wine, and cooking Importance of the Food Service Department Large-volume alcoholic beverage sales Chi-Chi’s, Bennigan’s, and T.G.I. Friday’s Dollar sales in the food service industry continued to increase in the 1980s
In the mid-1980s, upscale restaurant chains showed greater growth than the fast-food Importance of the Food Service Department -In the 1990s, international companies continued to invest in the American food service industry.
-People have interest in the food and beverage
-They want to enjoy good food and alcohol
-Food service industry is great growing and making money
-Great impact on the national economy
-A lot of employees Importance of the Food Service Department Food service industry has a direct influence on the profit of the hotel Making a lot of money Why does the food service industry important? Relationship to the Profit of the Hotel The food service growing is a difference between dollar volume (or nominal) growth and what the industry designates as real growth Relationship to the Profit of the Hotel Real growth
-Comes from selling more food and from increasing customer counts
-May result merely from raising food prices Relationship to the Profit of the Hotel Food and beverage sales generate about 31% of the total sales dollars earned by the U.S. lodging industry Relationship to the Profit of the Hotel Textbook 197page Relationship to the Profit of the Hotel Happy Hours featuring two drinks for the price of one The Beverage Department
-Well-run beverage department can and often does produce a profit of as high as 50% of sales
-Employees have to know about products and merchandising, the greater the sales and profit will be
-Promotions is important Relationship to the Profit of the Hotel The Beverage Department
-The bar operation should have one or two specialty drinks
Serves in a specially glass or container and in a manner designed to attract attention Relationship to the Profit of the Hotel Front of the House - Restaurant Manager
- Assistant Manager
- Dining Room Manager
- Food Runner
- Sommelier -Coordinates and directs the entire operation to assure efficient quality
-Courteous food service
-Works through supervisory personnel
-Must know all of the details involved in every restaurant job
-Hires and manages staff
-College degree typically preferred
-Experience in food service
-Leadership experience Restaurant Manager -Performs specific supervisory duties under the manager’s direction
-Generally takes over in manager’s absence
-Must be through familiar with entire operation and have good management skills
-Assists with hiring and managing staff
-Assists with ordering and keeping inventory
-Often takes on management of the bar area
-College degree typically preferred
-Experience in food service work Assistant Manager -Coordinates kitchen work
-Creates and adjust menu
-Monitors and controls food costs and inventory
-Work with GM on Marketing initiative
-Cooks food for large events or special occasions
-Handles ordering of food products
-Works with food venders for pricing quality and delivery
-Control back of house budget
-Schedules, recruits, and trains back of house staff
-Sanitation training Executive Chef Other requirement
-Management experience -Responsible for daily kitchen operations
-Directs and manages line cooks
-Works with Chef to design recipes and create dishes
-Assists with ordering food and keeping inventory
-Requirements: culinary background, leadership experience Chef de Cuisine -Second to Chef de Cuisine
-Runs the kitchen
-Provides instruction and training to cooks and kitchen staff
-Requirements: Culinary background, Leadership experience Sous Chef -Oversees pantry and prep work in kitchen
-Directs and instructs pantry chef
-Helps with garnishing and artistic elements during meal preparation
-Requirements: Culinary back ground Chef Garde Manager -Responsible for pantry organization
-Prepares food in the kitchen
-Cleans, cut, stores and otherwise prepares food for cooking
-Receives direction from chef, cook or pantry chef Pantry/ Prep Cook -Educates patron about wines
-Suggests wines that are suitable for guests’ meals
-Order and keeps inventory of wines
-Requirements: Has a broad knowledge of wine and food pairings Sommelier -Ensures kitchen orders are prepared in timely manner
-Finalizes the presentation of each plate and ensures the appropriate temperature
-Directs runners or servers to deliver complete orders Expediter -Prepares food in the kitchen
-Works one or more kitchen stations including grill, broil, or fry
-Receives direction from chef or cook Line Cooks -Responsible for preparing dough, baked goods, baked desserts
-Often works overnight or in early morning hours Pastry Chef -Responsible for maintaining dishwashing equipment
-Dilute chemicals for dish machines
-Maintains clean dished and other wares
-Prevents bottlenecks in kitchen Dishwasher - Maintain integrity of service
- Help on floor when necessary
- Train front of house staff with standards of company polices and guidelines
- Constantly evaluate front of house staff
- Handles customer complaints Dining room Manager -Assists in training and evaluating all dining room personnel
-Enforce food and beverage policies and procedures
-Ensures sanitation compliance throughout restaurant
-Hiring. Scheduling, and training of front of house staff Dining room Manager -Monitor service standards and trains staff on service skills
-Handles POS system
-Handles purchasing for china, glass, silver, and lines
-Handle bar ordering if there is no bar manager Dining room Manager -Attends to guests and takes orders
-Offers information and suggestions about the menu
-Prepares checks and collect payment
-Require positive attitude and ability to handle stressful situations
-Do side work during non-busy hours
-Identifies food orders when ready and delivers items to tables in a timely manner Server -Transports food from kitchen to dining room
-Helps expedite orders
-Communicates with servers
-May help clear tables Food Runner -Sets tables
-Clears and cleans tables
-Pours water for guests Busser -Take drink orders through serves or directly from guests
-Prepares mixed drinks, pour wine or beer, serve bottled or soft drinks
-May be responsible for ordering and taking inventory
-Requirement: positive attitude, communicates with server Bartender -Greets customers at the door
-Assigns guests to tables
-Provide menus to guests and cleans them afterward
-May schedule reservations
-Answers phone Hostess Managers
-Make sure everything goes smoothly
Elements of management: planning, organizing, communicating, decision-making, motivation, and control.
-Goals are set for each key result area
-Schedules and checklists help organization
“Lead sheet” lists staff on both shifts so you can easily see who is on duty. Front of the House Sometimes called the “heart” of the operation
-Production sheets: detail all tasks necessary to bring food quantities up to par stock and to complete preparation on time
-Chef: makes sure all menu items are prepared according to standardized recipes and the line is ready for service
-Food Cost % - should be calculated at least monthly: Formula: Cost/Sales × 100 Back of the House - A purchasing cycle can be set up that rolls along efficiently, a system that repeats itself day after day with minimal demands on the operator
- Product specifications need only be reviewed, not reset, each time food is ordered
- Par stock and reorder points are relatively fixed & changed only as sales volume changes appreciably or as the menu changes
- Major suppliers are changed infrequently Purchasing cycle -Done by the executive chef and manager or hotel’s purchasing department (given the size of hotel and scope of executive chef’s duties)
-Goal is to get best quality products at most affordable prices
Purchasing -Dependent on size of hotel
-In Large Resorts, the purchasing department will handle purchasing, venders, and quality control along with the executive chef
-Product is either delivered directly to the restaurant or stored in the hotel’s warehouse and distributed to restaurants as requested by executive chef Purchasing Opening Inventory $100
-Closing Inventory $200
=Cost of Food Sold $300
Food Revenues for the Day = $1000 Cost of Food Sold/Revenues -Executive Chefs and Restaurant Managers handle very complex budgets
-Each manager is responsible for the control of products they order
-Executive Chefs must be aware of how much to order, how much to keep on hand or in supply and at what point to reorder to avoid waste and spoilage Budgeting -The process of costing out all ingredients in a recipe to find the total cost to create a meal
-All ingredients are broken down into the amount that goes into the dish
-Once a recipe cost is created the executive chef and the restaurant manager can determine the menu price for the entree Recipe Costing -Recipe costs must be accurate and updated when a recipe changes or product pricing changes
-Cost of the food to create directly impacts revenue of the restaurant
-Chefs want to create high quality meals at the most economical price possible Recipe Costing Projecting payroll costs:
-Requires preparation of staffing schedules and establishing wage rates
Staffing patterns may vary during different periods of the year
Payroll related costs:
-Variable (percentage ratio to payroll)
-Fixed (dollar amount per employee on the payroll) Labor Costs All restaurant managers need to stay on-top of payroll costs. To control costs in all area’s of the restaurant managers must:
- Have basic staffing requirements
- Create strict work schedules
- Control overtime
- Schedule staff according to occupancy of the hotel
- Control staffing numbers for special events (Banquets)
- Control clock procedures
- Communicate between all levels of management (executive chef, room manager, beverage manager) Labor Budgeting Proper staffing
-Critical for successful running of a kitchen
Important: have enough staff to enable the restaurant to handle the volume on any shift.
-Often it is better to overstaff the kitchen, rather than under-staff:
Much easier to send an employee home than to call someone in.
Having extra staff on hand allows for cross-training and development. Staffing and Scheduling Smart restaurateurs arrange with suppliers for all deliveries to be delivered at times convenient to the restaurant
-Copy of the order should be available for the receiver
Checks quality and quantity accuracy
-Management should check and sign for all deliveries
Few restaurateurs have the time to check all items, so they check the higher-cost items Receiving Should be arranged for easy receiving, issuing, and inventory control
-Dry-goods storeroom: canned, packed, and bulk dry foods are stored according to usage
Most-used foods: stored closest to the door.
Least-used foods: stored in the less accessible corners and shelves.
As foods are received, they are stored at the backs of shelves.
Older items are moved forward to be used first. Storage Dry Storage: 50-75°F
Meat& Poultry: 33-38°F
Frozen foods: 0-15°F Storage Kitchen manager, chef, or cook
-Begins the production process by determining the expected number of guests
Same period for the previous year gives an indication of the expected volume and a breakdown of menu item sales.
-Product mix: list of what was sold yesterday
Gives an indication of what needs to be prepped to bring the item back up to par level. Food Production Every morning:
-Chef or kitchen manager determines the amount of each menu item to prepare
Par levels are checked and a production sheet is completed for each station.
Production sheets give the quantity of each menu item to be prepared. Food Production Cooking line:
-Most important part of the kitchen layout
-Kitchen is set up according to what is ordered most frequently
-Production Procedures Food Production Creating production sheets:
-Count the products on hand for each station
-Determine production levels
-Decide on amount of production required to reach the level for each recipe
-When calculations are completed, sheets are handed to cooks Production Procedures Use of production sheets
-Critical in controlling how cooks use products
Production plays a key role in food cost.
Every recipe has a particular spec to follow.
-When one deviates from the recipe:
Quality goes down.
Consistency is lost.
Food cost goes up. Production Procedures -Rooms service has the added pressure of delivery of hot food, of the same quality to the hotel room in a timely manner
-Long waits at the elevator and stopping on many floors can cause the food to get cold quickly
-Special delivery trays and warming carts help Room Service SPECIAL FUNCTIONS In every organization and company, whether it is big or small, has developed its own management concepts so that it may operate smoothly while accomplishing the goals and objectives that it has set.
FOUR BASIC FUNCTIONS:
Without the proper implementation or putting all of these, it does allow a successful start and the means to which a solution can be achieved to correct problems in order for the organization to remain effective and productive. SPECIAL FUNCTIONS -Without the proper implementation or putting all of these, it does allow a successful start and the means to which a solution can be achieved to correct problems in order for the organization to remain effective and productive.
-In order to have a better understanding of special functions, here are some examples of it. SPECIAL FUNCTIONS Restaurants and Hotels are the most welcoming setting in which where to dine and gives warm environment while enjoying our meal.
Here are some of the special functions: Catering
Some restaurants do cater, they provide food service to a special events like banquets and weddings.
Types of Caterings:
Mobile catering – It serves food directly from a vehicle, cart or truck which is designed for the purpose.
-It is common at outdoor events such as concerts,workplaces and downtown business districts.
Event Catering – The event caterings range from cheese lunch drop –off to full-service catering.
-It vary depending on the event and can include: cooking and delivering food to an outside location; cooking, delivering and serving food; and full-service.
Boxed Lunch Catering - A box lunch is a lunch consisting of a sandwich, chips, fruit and a dessert.
-It is typically prepared by a caterer and dropped off to a location for a client’s dining needs.
-They are used primarily in the corporate arena for working lunches when they do not have time to take a break from their meeting yet still need to eat.
Airline Catering – An airline meal or in-flight meal is a meal served to passengers on board a commercial airliner. These meals are prepared by airline catering services. Buffet/Eat all you can - It is when the customers literally line up to dine, diners bring their own plate along the buffet line and are given a portion from a server at each station.
-It is a wide variety of fresh selections and exotic cuisines at this all-you-can-eat dining experience.
-Is a system of serving meals in which food is placed in a public area where the diner generally serve themselves.
-They are offered at various places including hotels and many social events.
-Hot buffet- serves hot dishes
-Cold buffet – it is a type of meal served buffet-style with multiple cold dishes of various foods on a table and it is originated in Sweden.
-Hot and Cold buffet usually serves with plates, bowls, and cutlery.
-Finger Buffet – It is an array of foods that are designed to be small and easily consumed by hand alone such as cupcakes, slices of pizza, foods on cocktail sticks, and etc. -Food service management begins with the menu
-It is also the property’s most powerful marketing device
-Menu must reflect the concept & vice versa
-Menu must fill a need for the target market Menu Planning Labor
-Need enough employees with the appropriate skills are required to produce all menu items
-Must be available to produce all items required by the menu Menu Planning Equipment
-Purchase the right equipment to achieve maximum production efficiency - plan the equipment according to the menu
Systematic flow of items from receiving clerk to guests
-Avoid over use:
Too many menu items requiring one piece of equipment may slow service Menu Planning Space
-Limited storage space
-Adequate store space is required for all equipment to receive, store, and serve
Layout and Design
-The menu affects space and equipment necessary for efficient production Menu Planning Layout and Design
-Should be a balance between a menu too high in food cost & too low in food cost
Best menu items are those with highest contribution margin per unit & highest sales
-It is recommended to analyze by:
Individual menu items
Categories of menu offering
Meal periods or business categories Menu Planning Ingredients
-Should be readily available at costs that support anticipated product selling prices
-The menu affects timing of food production and service Menu Planning Cost Implications
-Equipment, space, personnel, and time concerns, mentioned previously, can all be translated into costs Menu Planning Employee interaction Employee interaction is a special Human Resource term which mainly refers to describe a kind of interpersonal matters set up among employees, such as the peer and their managers. Employees interaction also can be called internal customers while the customers will be called external customers. Employee interaction relates to the effects of interpersonal interaction between employees which may have both negative and positive effects on employee attitudes, employee efficiency, employee productivity and job performance etc.
Examples of the effects of employee interaction:
-Competition (Competition can be a positive or negative conflict in the workplace, depending on the situation)
-Harassment Employee interaction is dependent on different factors. One is coordination. To operate a smooth-flowing business, delegation is key to meeting quotas and deadlines. So coordination between employees is necessary. As a leader, managers have to have skills to coordinate employees. Since the leaders do not manage employees, the lead them, managers should have certain characteristics. Characteristics of Leaders Employees interaction also can be called internal customers while the customers will be called external customers. Since the leaders do not manage employees, the lead them, leaders have to have certain characteristics.
• Drive: achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity, initiative
- It is not to be confused with physical need deprivation. We use the term to refer to a constellation of traits and motives reflecting a high effort level.
• Honesty and Integrity
- Honesty and integrity are virtues in all individuals, but have special significance for leaders.
-Self-confidence plays an important role in decision-making and in gaining others‘ trust.
• Knowledge on the Business
-Effective leaders have a high degree of knowledge about the company, industry, and technical matters.
• Other Traits (weaker support): charisma, creativity/originality, flexibility Tips To Keep A Good Employee Interaction 1.Tips To Keep A Good Employee InteractionGet them excited about a better future.
- As a leader, you need to find at least one common goal for all, and then focus a shared vision around that commonality.
2. Make sure your employees listen to you.
- If they are not listening, they will not follow. If they are not following, then you are not leading.
3. You define, and then let your employees conquer, the goals and expectations.
- It is more important to give the idea of the outcome you desire, rather than telling your employees the steps on how to get there.
4. Make it a point to personally meet with everyone in your department.
- Have a small and personal meeting with your employees is important.
5. Motivating a group differs from that of motivating an individual.
- Part of being a great leader is to know the strengths and weaknesses of your employees. Other Tips on Balancing Employee Interaction: 1. Your meetings should be direct and to-the-point.
2. Before setting up a meeting, make sure that you’re prepared.
3. Set an earlier deadline.
4. Emphasize that while your company promotes employee engagement, it should be done at the appropriate time, in an appropriate place. Customer interaction Customer Interaction Management (CIM) refers to a type of Enterprise Software Application which is responsible for managing the interaction between an organization and its customers. Normally, a CIM application will be deployed in a contact centre and used by the agents while communicating with customers of the organization. Customer Interaction Management systems handle communication across multiple different channels, such as e-mail, SMS, telephone, Instant Messaging, whitemail (scanned documents), and so on. Pattern about customer Interaction What to notice? The Four Stages of Customer Interaction are: Seven Commandments of Customer Service Why Industry Need To Train And Develop Employees? Back of House - Executive Chef
- Chef de Cuisine
- Sous Chef
- Chef Grade Manager
- Line Cooks
- Pantry/Prep Cook
- Pastry Chef
- Dishwasher Conclusion 1. Importance of food service department
2. Relationship to the profit
3. Who manages food service department
4. Individual working
5. Daily tasks of food service department
6. Special function or tasks of the department
7. Menu planning
8. Food production&Sanitation
9. Operation budgeting
10. Customer&Employee interaction
11. Employee training&development
12. Innovation and the future of department The jobs of food service department The jobs of food service department? INNOVATION - It is the act of introducing something new.
- The food innovation facilities help the businesses to develop, test and prove new products.
- Technology(Food innovative companies) Full Service Two types of Standard full-service operations:
-Casual dining restaurants
-Fine dining Fine Dinning - Definition
- Prices. Prices for entrées are often $20 or more.
- Advantages. Managers and servers are frequently experienced and committed to making their careers in fine dining establishments.
- Examples: Morton's, Ruth's Chris, or any Wolfgang Puck restaurants are examples of well-known fine dining locations. -Tell the truth
-Bend the rules
-Put pen to paper
-Master the moments of truth
-Be a fantastic fixer
-Never underestimate the value of a thank you Because capable employees help businesses expand and run smoothly. If they are intelligent and have been properly trained in all the aspects of the job they are doing, they have more opportunities to advance and benefit the company in further ways. There are many companies who decide that cross-training capable employees will also prove beneficial in times of crisis or emergency. 1. Initiation
- Initiation is the active management of welcoming (on boarding) a newcustomer and beginning the relationship starting the work for which a company has been hired or delivering the product that has been purchased
- Integration is the active management and assessment of the product/service after the Initiation process has been completed. The ultimate goal of the Integration stage is achieving operational excellence.
- Intelligence is the active management of accumulating all previouslearnings from the Initiation and Integration stages, conducting additional fact-finding and research and so on. The ultimate goal of the Intelligence stage is knowledge creation.
4. Value Creation
- Value Creation is the active management of developing a partnership with the customer to become an inextricable part of the customer’s performance, find opportunities to drive innovation, create new value, and gain recommendations from the customer for new business. -Every interaction with customers (or lack of interaction) tells customers how much they are truly valued
-These interactions are moments of truth are when a customer learns if promises made to them (the brand) will be honored or not
-In order to create great experiences for customers, companies must know what they want customers to feel, think and do at every stage of the relationship
-The most unsatisfied customers can be a company’s greatest resource for innovation.
-Customer engagement failures must be pursued aggressively to find out how to create What the Industry Need to Train Their Employees? - Communication
- Computer Skills
- Human Relations
- Quality Initiatives
- Safety Benefits That Come From Training - Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees
- Increased employee motivation- Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain
- Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods
- Increased innovation in strategies and products- Reduced employee turnover
- Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!)
- Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training FUTURE OF FOOD INDUSTRY - Technology is the future of the food industry that technology replaces majority of the jobs like less waitress/waiters in a restaurant.
- Food innovation represents a positive business process or profitable business outcome but sometimes it can came out bad.
- Food innovation can be also a failure/messy ones to businesses, in order to have a successful business, you should be able to embrace the role of both successes and failures in the new product business cycles. BEESKET - It is found in Seoul, Korea
- It has a lot of variety of flavors(fruits and veggies)
- You can choose what your smoothie taste like.
- It is an expressive unique juice and you can also get a chance to know the information and know how healthy your drink is. What is full service restaurant? -Definition
-This is not takeout or even a fast food
-It is an old-fashioned idea of going out to eat What is casual dining restaurant? -Definition
-Price: usually in the range of $10-$15
-Advantage: they are often able to attract a wider customer base than fine dining restaurant
-Example: Olive Garden, Chili's, Red Lobster and etc. Example of the front-of-the-house E-Menu Example of payment STARBUCKS Technology in the Restaurant Industry Technology has come a long way so it is hard to overlook the progress in making technology available and affordable.
- Independent operators may not require or able to afford the sophistication of technology that chain operators are using. BACK OF THE HOUSE TECHNOLOGY FRONT-OF-THE-HOUSE TECHNOLOGY POS SYSTEMS Night Clubs - It gives an urban entertainment feeling that generally featuring music, dance floor, and food and drink.
- It is generally distinguished from bars, pubs, or taverns.
- In night clubs, it also serves food and drinks especially alcoholic beverages.
Wedding Reception/Banquets – it is where you held your party after the completion of marriage ceremony.
- The food served at a wedding reception is determined by the time of the wedding and local customs. Food may range from a single non-alcoholic drink with wedding cake to elaborate multi-course dinners. The type of food is chosen entirely at the discretion of the hosts so the hosts are the ones who provide their choice of food and drinks. Employee's training and development - Why industry need to train and develop employees?
- What the industry need to train their employees?
- Benefits that come from training Temperature
- Most important element for bacteria survival and growth
-Also the easiest to control
-Temperature danger zone: 40°F to 140°F
-180°F is used in final rinse of dishwashers
- Chemical sanitation:
-Most effective between 75°F and 120°F Bacteria and Temperature Overall responsibility for food service has been given to the FDA(Food and Drug Administration)
- Provides a model ordinance that is the basis for most local health ordinances
States and local communities monitor restaurants for cleanliness and adherence to food protection ordinances
Public health license to operate a restaurant is required
- Health officer makes an inspection
Approaches to Food Safety In order to grow, bacteria require:
- Food, moisture, proper pH, and time
Potentially hazardous foods:
- Those high in protein (e.g., meat, milk, and dairy products)
- Eggs, fish, and shellfish
- Custard, mayonnaise, hollandaise sauce, and quiche Controlling or Destroying Bacteria Do not require a hazardous food in order to survive:
- Can survive on any food or surface
- Do not multiply
- Not as affected by heat or cold
Once a virus enters a body cell, it takes over:
- Forcing the cell to assist in production of more viruses Viruses What does the Food Service department do? Food service departments are responsible for overall operations of their establishments. • Variable item (Mandated by law)
- Social Security
- Unemployment Insurance (State and Federal)
- Workers’ Compensation Insurance
- State Disability Insurance
• Fixed item (Employee Benefit)
- Health Insurance
- Union Welfare Insurance
- Life Insurance Labor Costs – Maintained for quality and inventory control
- Right size
- Compliance with food safety Production Procedure • Revolves around: POS(Point of Sale) systems
- POS Systems for take out
- Wireless handheld devices
• New technologies:
- Multimedia lobby displays
- Self-service kiosks
- Wireless payment-processing units
- In-store dashboard displays • Suppliers
- IBM: Linux servers and Sure POS 700 series
- Sharp: UP-5900 system
- NCR: 7454 POS Workstation, Real POS 70, and Comprise
- Micros: Eclipse PC Workstation POS Systems for take out • Caller ID
• An order management queue
• Search function for guest names and orders
• A repeat prior order and future delayed order features
• Guests database with multiple addresses and phone numbers, VIP status and a notes section user interface that minimizes steps needed to complete an order and payment. TABLE MANAGEMENT Precise control of restaurant efficiency, consistency, and accuracy
- Faster table turnover
- Increases revenue and profit
- Handles reservations and waiting times
- Incorporates alert features PAYING AT THE TABLE During payment, there is a handheld device that may be provided to the guests to:
- Verify their bill
- Include any tip
- Swipe their card
- Print the receipt
There are benefits to the guests:
- Peace of mind of concerning security issues
- Ability to leave the restaurant sooner. Web-based Enterprise Portals • Offer centralization of applications
- Sales reporting
- Cash management
- In-store profit and loss statements
- Labor and food costs
- Task lists
- POS data • Consists of product management systems for:
- Purchasing and managing inventories
- Menu management
- Controlling labor and other costs
- Tip reporting
- Food and beverage cost percentages
- Human resources
- Financial reporting Purchasing and Inventory Control • Purchasing: Product management
- Tracks products through each inventory cycle
- Automatically reorders when the item falls below par stock
- Ingredients for the cost of recipes are calculated for total cost and selling prices
• Inventory control: Systems quickly record inventory
- Easily allowing new stock to be added Menu Management • Menu Link: Evaluates managers’ produce purchasing
- Compares actual to expected food usage
- Tests proposed recipes and pricing changes Food Costing • ChefTec & ChefTec Plus software (http://www.culinarysoftware.com/css-home.htm)
• Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) – used to enter inventory amounts into the system
• Laser bar code scanning – speeds up inventory
- taking process (make it more accurate)
- Data is entered into the systems, variance report is generated, and any significant variances are investigated Labor Management • Interfaces back- and front-of-the-house
- Working hours
- Human resources information
• Includes: Application monitoring, recruitment, personnel information, 1-9 status, tax status, availability, vacation information, benefit information, and scheduling
Examples: TimePro and Windows-based labor schedulers FINANCIAL REPORTING • Front-and back-of-the-house systems
- May interface by transferring data to and from the central server
- Make it easier to monitor:
- Service times
- POS food costs
- Labor costs
- Guest counts Kitchen Display Systems • Manage and control kitchen efficiency
- Provide highly visible, real-time information
- Installed in more upscale restaurants
- Mounted in kitchen or food prep area Competition- Competition between employees who are in the same position will create motivation or frustration.
Spurring Creativity- Conflicts might result arguing, as long as those argues are useful to the company, they are positive and will spur employee’s creativity.
Personal conflict-Conflicting with personal feelings during work time will bring mistakes to work and also will affect the efficiency.
Harassment- Every company should pay attention on it. once managers find the problem, they should fix it immediately. The Four Stages of Customer Interaction help companies establish internal and external experience expectations that are easy to communicate and understand, measure, and manage, and will have a direct impact on their financial performance. The Four Stages also provide a framework for developing and implementing all customer facing processes and solutions. 1. Initiation
- Welcoming information and materials provided and explained to customer.
- Delivering the right information to the right people at the right time.
- Satisfied with vendor selection
- Confident about the likelihood of success
- Anxiety-free start-up with no sense of being overwhelmed
- Project is completed from implementation standpoint
- All components are operational
- Satisfied with process and progress
- Anxiety-free transition to operational stage The Four Stages of Customer Interaction are: 3. Intelligence
- Customer and vendor are sharing information in an effort to glean as much information about operational excellence experience as possible including how customer’s customers are being impacted by experience
- Vendor learning customer’s strategic goals
- Willing to share more and more information
4. Value Creation
- Applying learning to drive innovation
- Creating new products, services, relationships, revenue, cost savings
- Fully trusting The Four Stages of Customer Interaction are: Orientation • Help new employees become acquainted with the restaurant and make them feel like they are a part of it
• Most labor turnover occurs within the first few weeks of employment. It is Important to establish a bond between the employee and the restaurant Eight goals of orientation: • Explain the company’s history, philosophy, mission, goals, and objectives
• Make the employee feel welcome
• Let employees know why they have been selected
• Ensure that the employee knows what to do and who to ask when unsure
• Explain and show what is expected
• Have employees explain and demonstrate each task
• Explain various programs and social activities available
• Show where everything is kept • During Production