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study of

Casey Decker

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Lakes

Lakes Primary Consumer
Zooplankton Habitat
Zooplankton are found in freshwater lakes, ponds and rivers where the current is slower (MNDNR.) Food Web Position
Heterotroph. Also a First Level Consumer.

Nutritional Requirements
Feed primarily on algae and other suspended materials in the water (MNDNR.) Sensitivity to Environmental Insults
When the environment changes the zooplankton usually respond to the change in nutrient levels, pollution, and temperature levels the fastest ("Communities Of Zooplankton.")

Human Usefulness
Humans use zooplankton as an indicator to when the panfish are most likely to bite ("Zooplankton Triggers Everything.") Producer- White Water Lily Habitat
Found in protected, shallow bays,
slow-moving streams, and lakes.

Population Size
In 2008, over 1,100 populations
were found ("Small White Water-lily.") Reproductive Behavior
Flowers open for few hours
each day. Flying insects
pollinate the lilies during
this time ("Small White Water-lily.") Food Web Position
Autotroph. Located on the bottom of the food web. Seeds consumed by waterfowls, fish, and other mammals ("American White Waterlily.")

Nutritional Requirements
Basic requirement is sunlight ("Culture of Water Lilies.") Sensitivity to Environmental Insults
The root completely freezes over due to cold weather. Also the root drys out due to hot temperatures (Burghardt, James.)

Human Usefulness
Used for medical purposes. Also used in private ponds for looks ("White Water Lily.") Climate
Since there are lakes all over Minnesota, there isn't a specific climate for the Lake ecosystem.
Example: Upper Red Lake
-Average temperatures of around 17 degrees Fahrenheit in the winter to around 79 degrees Fahrenheit in the summer ("Red Lakes- Upper and Lower.")

Surface Conditions
The soil texture near Upper Red Lake consist mostly of fine loam ("Red Lakes- Upper and Lower.") Physical Characteristics of the Lake By Casey Decker and Kayla Spande Food Web Producers First Level Consumer Second Level Consumer White Waterlily Phytoplankton Tadpoles Zooplankton Third Level Consumer Perch Sunfish Walleye Northern Pike Humans Forth Level Consumer Light Energy or Chemical Energy Lost Heat http://cleveland.about.com/od/fishinginohio/ig/Fish-of-Lake-Erie/Bluegill.htm http://cleveland.about.com/od/fishinginohio/ig/Fish-of-Lake-Erie/Bluegill.htm http://yournucara.wordpress.com/2012/04/30/top-5-sun-safety-tips/ http://flowerpics.net/lily/white-water-lily-photos.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadpole http://www.sanakvo.org/water-cycle http://www.sanakvo.org/water-cycle http://microbes.limnology.wisc.edu/outreach/phytoplankton.php http://www.esa.org/esablog/ecology-in-policy/outlaw-mussels-invade-the-west/ http://www.naturenet.net/blogs/2008/03/awakenings/ http://www.midatlanticstocking.com/page4.aspx http://www.redorbit.com/education/reference_library/science_1/fish/2579338/northern_pike_1/ http://www.americansportsmanoutfitters.com/article-library/fishing-articles/michigans-detroit-river-walleyes http://www.google.com/imgres?q=man+fishing+from+boat&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&tbo=d&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&rlz=1I7GGLR_en&biw=1024&bih=590&tbm=isch&tbnid=Pc5wxic6mB_zLM:&imgrefurl=http://footage.shutterstock.com/clip-1684039-stock-footage-man-fishing-in-boat.html&docid=YPQw2wP_H95NDM&imgurl=http://ak5.picdn.net/shutterstock/videos/1684018/preview/stock-footage-man-fishing-in-boat.jpg&w=400&h=224&ei=noHvUJ7bL4egrAGj-YCACA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=663&vpy=203&dur=1047&hovh=168&hovw=300&tx=170&ty=86&sig=103669753750619418006&page=3&tbnh=150&tbnw=300&start=36&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:50,s:0,i:240 http://geology.com/lakes-rivers-water/minnesota.shtml Habitat
Bluegill live in most bodies of water. They are most abundant in clear lake and ponds with rooted aquatic vegetation ("Bluegill Sunfish.")

Bluegills are part of the Panfish group. Annually 9.7 million pounds of Panfish are harvested ("Fish and Fishing.") Reproductive Behavior
Bluegill typically build their nests in large groups. The male first selects an area of 1ft-4ft of water and the the female usually lays 10,000-60,000 eggs. These eggs with hatch in about five days ("Bluegill Sunfish.") http://www.thefishsite.com/articles/281/species-profile-hybrid-sunfish Food Web Position
Bluegills are Heterotrophs. They are Second Level consumers.

Nutritional Requirements
Bluegills feed on zooplankton, insects and other invertebrates ("Bluegill Sunfish.") Human Attractiveness
Humans are attracted to bluegills because they are an easy fish to catch no matter what age you are.

Example of Symbiotic Relationship
Parasitism. A leech is considered a parasite to the bluegill ("Freshwater Leech.") http://wallpaperimages.org/image_gallery/flower_pictures/White_Water_Lily/White_Water_Lily_White_water_lily_with_water_droplets.jpg Population Size
Since zooplankton are so small there is no accurate way to determine their population.

Reproductive Behavior
Zooplankton reproduce rapidly, populations can increase 30% in about a day under good conditions ("Zooplankton Fact Sheet.") Secondary Consumer- Bluegill Invasive Species- Eurasian Watermilfoil Eurasian Watermilfoil was brought to the U.S. by ships and birds from Europe, this plant is also native in Asia and Northern Africa.

In a lake setting this plant tries to kill off the native plants in the area.

Some ways to help with managing this plant include using herbicides or mechanically removing the plants.
These methods cause little to no damage to the native plants ("Eurasian Watermilfoil Management Program.") http://www.google.com/imgres?q=eurasian+watermilfoil&um=1&hl=en&sa=N&tbo=d&rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&rlz=1I7GGLR_en&biw=1024&bih=590&tbm=isch&tbnid=gKuwffiJV0GeHM:&imgrefurl=http://www.saveblacklake.org/invasive-species/eurasian-water-milfoil&docid=mxwQ0FBVOeTjfM&imgurl=http://www.saveblacklake.org/system/assets/general/milfoil-06.jpeg&w=2592&h=1944&ei=pA7zUOuyCsfQqAHqoYHoCA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=366&vpy=47&dur=4250&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=158&ty=140&sig=103669753750619418006&page=2&tbnh=155&tbnw=203&start=18&ndsp=22&ved=1t:429,r:26,s:0,i:182 Decomposer Wood Lake Ely, Minnesota Upper South Long Lake Near Brainerd, MN Example of Symbiotic Relationship
Commensalism. Bacterium attaches to plankton. Plankton provides carbon, nitrogen, and a better chance of survival ("Zooplankton.") Example of Symbiotic Relationship
Mutualism. During polintation,
insects recieve food from lily.
During this, pollen is stuck
to the insect later placed in a different
plant. Sandy Laccaria Habitat
Found in fire dependent forests, river shores, and sandy lake shores. Found from late summer to early fall ("Sandy Laccaria.")

Population Size
Small enough to be classified as a special concern species in Minnesota ("Sandy Laccaria.") Reproductive Behavior
Roots may cross underground or wind-borne spores move fungi to fungi ("Sandy Laccaria.") Food Web Position
Heterotroph. Decomposer level of trophic levels.

Nutritional Requirements
Receives energy from decomposing remains of all levels of the energy pyramid. http://www.flickr.com/photos/qspiddy/4028342926/ Sensitivity to Environmental Insults
Affected by deposition of nitrogen as well as other pollution to the sandy soil ("Sandy Laccaria.")

Human Usefulness
Edible, therefore used in cooking(Brill, Steve.)
Used in nature photography. Example of Symbiotic Relationship
Mutualism. Sandy Laccaria receives carbohydrates from algae, and provides the green color to the algae ("Symbiotic Fungi.") http://www.flickr.com/photos/c0nfus3d_fa1ry/2169861536/?q=sandy laccaria http://www.wildmanstevebrill.com/Mushrooms.Folder/Sandy%20Laccaria.html
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