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US History - 3.1 - 3.2 - 3.3 - 3.4 - The Colonies Come of Age
Transcript of US History - 3.1 - 3.2 - 3.3 - 3.4 - The Colonies Come of Age
1759- British forces defeated the French at Quebec winning the war.
The two nations signed the Treaty of Paris in 1763; France gave up Canada and all of North America east of the Mississippi to Britain.
The French & Indian War
Enlightenment had two important effects:
1. The idea that people have natural rights that governments must respect challenged the authority of the British rulers.
2. The movement’s emphasis on science as a source of truth weakened the authority of the church.
By the 1700’s, the Puritan church had lost its grip on society.
was a Massachusetts preacher who sought to revive the intensity and commitment of the Puritan vision.
Edwards preached that people must acknowledge their sinfulness and feel God’s love for them. He started a religious revival that became known as the
, and lasted through the 1730’s and 1740’s.
The limited rights of women in the Northern colonies contributed to an outbreak of witch-hunting in the late 1600’s.
During the 1690’s, in Salem, Massachusetts, many women were falsely accused of being witches—those who possess evil powers. (Salem Witch Trials)
Many of the accused women were considered too independent and rebellious. Several women were tried & executed.
The Northern colonies were made up of diverse groups of people.
Many immigrants from Europe settled in New England and the Middle Colonies.
Germans came to Pennsylvania in search of jobs & religious freedom.
Another large immigrant group was Scots-Irish. Other immigrant groups included the Dutch, Scandinavians, and Jews.
Northern Society Is Diverse
The part of the triangular trade that brought Africans to the West Indies and later to North America was called the
Africans made this trip on crowded, dirty ships. Nearly 20% of the Africans aboard each ship died from either cruel treatment or disease.
Of those who survived the trip, about 90% of enslaved Africans worked in the fields.
Children began working at the age of 12.
Slaves were treated harshly. Slave owners whipped & beat slaves they considered disobedient or disrespectful.
Throughout the 1600’s, the number of indentured servants in the South decreased. As a result, planters faced a labor shortage on their plantations. They soon turned to the use of African
Enslaved Africans had been working for years in the English colonies of the West Indies.
What was the triangular trade?
The Agricultural South
The new English government followed a policy of
. This meant that it rarely enforced laws.
Parliament did not think it was necessary to supervise the colonies closely.
What is salutary neglect?
In 1684, the English King, Charles II, responded by punishing Massachusetts, where much of the illegal trading occurred. The king took away the colony’s charter and made it a royal colony.
In 1685, James II replaced Charles as king. He placed the colonies from southern Maine to New Jersey under one large colony called the
Dominion of New England
The king made
Sir Edmund Andros
the new royal governor of the Dominion. Andros angered the colonists by outlawing local government and by forcing new taxes on the colonists.
What is mercantilism?
- a financial expert appointed by King George III as Britain’s prime minister.
Grenville wanted to raise money from the colonies to help pay off the war debt.
1764 Parliament passed the
. This act did 3 things:
1. Cut the import taxes on foreign-made molasses, this was done with help the colonists would pay a lower tax rather
than risk arrest by smuggling.
2. Placed a tax on certain imported goods that
had not been taxed before
3. Strengthened the enforcement of smuggling
laws by establishing a new court-known as a
What made the colonists angry at Britain?
, an Ottawa chief, led a group of
Native Americans to attack British forts.
During peace negotiations, British gave the
Native Americans blankets infected with
small pox. This disease killed many in the
group, and a result the Native Americans
The British government issued the
Proclamation of 1763
to prevent further fighting with Native Americans. This forbid colonists from settling west of an imaginary line along the Appalachian Mountains.
Colonists ignored the proclamation and continued to settle west of the line.
1754-fighting broke out between the British and French over western land around the Ohio River.
marched to the Ohio River to drive out the French.
The French and their Native American allies easily defeated the American troops-this marked the beginning of the
French and Indian War
During the early fighting, the French beat the British. In 1757 English King appointed
to the government, under his leadership, the British began winning battles.
What caused the French and Indian War?
France was Great Britain's rival in North America.
New France, France’s colony included eastern Canada, the Great Lakes region, and the Mississippi River valley.
Most French settlers were fur traders or Catholic priests who wanted to convert the Native Americans, and also established better relations with them.
Why were the French in North America?
Some colonists abandoned their old Puritan or Anglican churches. At the same time, independent denominations such as Baptist and Methodist gained new members.
The Great Awakening & the Enlightenment emphasized some opposing ideas.
The Great Awakening stressed emotion. The Enlightenment stressed reason.
However, both also stressed the importance of the individual.
In addition, both caused people to question authority.
was a philosophical movement that called for using reason & science to find truth.
Enlightenment began in Europe and spread to the colonies through books and pamphlets.
, a prominent colonist, was one of the movement’s leaders.
Colonial leaders used reason to conclude that individuals have natural rights which governments must respect.
New Ideas Influence the Colonists
Africans, both enslaved and free, lived in the North.
The northern economy did not depend on slave labor. However, slavery did exist in the Northern colonies.
Most slaves had greater legal standing than slaves elsewhere in the colonies.
Enslaved Africans in the North, however, were treated harshly, just as in the South.
Furthermore, free Africans faced much racial prejudice in the North.
As in the South, women in the Northern colonies enjoyed few rights. They could not vote or buy or sell property.
Farming was important in the North, especially in the diverse areas of Pennsylvania and New York.
Other industries, such as grinding wheat, fishing, and lumbering were also important in the North. Shipbuilding became a major industry. By 1770s, the Northern colonies built one third of all British ships. They also made more iron than England.
Boston and New York became important urban centers.
Philadelphia became the largest port in the British Empire.
Problems of the cities:
Overcrowded, clean water was difficult to get, and fire and diseases spread rapidly.
How did people earn a living in the North?
The Commercial North
Once in America, slaves tried to hold onto their African culture. They wove baskets and created pottery as they had done in their homeland. Slaves also played African music & told traditional stories.
of 1739, a group of slaves killed several plantation owners. These slaves eventually were captured and executed. Many other slaves ran away. Some found a new home in Native American tribes.
How did slaves cope in the American colonies?
During the 1600’s, Africans had become part of a trade network called the
This network had three main parts:
1. Merchants carried rum and other goods from New England to Africa
2. The merchants brought slaves from Africa to the West Indies, where they sold them for sugar and molasses
3. The merchants then sold these goods in New England to be distilled into rum.
Most Southerners worked small farms. However, the few wealthy plantation owners, or planters, controlled the economy.
Southern women could not vote, attend school, or own property. They worked long hours on farms and in the house.
The South’s many indentured servants also had few rights.
What was Southern life like?
The American colonies grew into two distinct regions:
North & South.
Colonists in the South created a society based on farming.
A typical large southern farm, or plantation, grew a single
—a crop grown for sale rather than for the farmer’s use. Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and indigo.
Few major cities developed in the South. One reason was that plantations usually were located among the rivers.
There were a few major cities in the South, such as Charles Town (later called Charleston) in South Carolina. However, southern society was mostly rural.
What kind of economy developed in the South?
In 1688, Parliament helped overthrow James. This event became known as the
Parliament restored the original colonies that made up the Dominion of New England. In addition, Parliament gave Massachusetts its charter back.
The new charter, however, called for the king to appoint the governor of Massachusetts. The charter also required Massachusetts be more tolerant of different religions.
England and Its Colonies
The Colonies Come of Age
England’s North American colonies existed mainly for the benefit of the home country. This was based on the theory of
Under mercantilism , a nation could become rich & powerful in two ways:
1. by obtaining gold & silver
2. by establishing a favorable balance of trade in which it sold more goods than it bought.
A nation’s ultimate goal through mercantilism was to become self-sufficient so that it did not have to depend on other countries for goods.
The key to achieving a favorable balance of trade was establishing colonies.
Colonies provided raw materials, such as lumber, furs, grain, and tobacco to the home country.
The colonies exported much of their raw materials to England, However, the colonies also sold raw materials to other countries.
In 1651, England’s
, or lawmaking body, passed the
. The acts greatly restricted colonial trade.
They declared that the colonies could export certain products only to England.
They required that goods traded between the colonies and other nations first had to be unloaded in England. This allowed England to tax the goods—and thus make money off the trade.
What are you going to do if you need to sell your goods but the
have made it almost impossible for you to profit?