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tenses

Form, Use, Active and Passive, Since and for, Exercises
by

Mariel Brandmayr

on 9 July 2013

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Transcript of tenses

Present
Past
Past II
Tenses
Simple Present
Form:
Infinitive
he/she/it +
-s
Use:
routines or
habitual actions
general statements
permanent situations
verbs of perception
state verbs
Signal words:
every day, always, sometimes, often, usually, never
Present Progressive
Form:
to be (am/are/is) + Infinitive + -ing
Use:
things happening around the time of speaking
not too distant future
temporary situations
long term enterprises
no state verbs
Signal words:
now, at the moment
Simple Past
Past Progressive
Form:
Infinitive + -ed
irregular verbs
Use:
activities at a specific time at the past
completed past activities that occurred in sequence
state verbs
performative verbs
adverbs of frequency
past habits and routines
action in a story
past
now
future
I am doing
past
now
future
I do
Signal words:
last, ago, in (+time), yesterday
Form:
was/were + Infinitive + -ing
Use:
two activities going on in parallel
temporary action (background)
action occurred
(foreground)
Signal words:
while
Present perfect
Present perfect progressive
Form:
have/has + past participle
Form:
have/has + been + Infinitive + -ing
Use:
emphasize the results in the present of a recently completed past activity
stress that
something
has occurred rather than exactly when it occurred
Signal words:
just, yet, ever, never,already, so far, up to now, since, for, recently
Use:
emphasize activities that have a direct influence on the current situation
with since or for to say how long an continuing activity has been in progress
Since and for
'Since' for certain points in time:
e.g. "I have been living here since 2001."
'For' expresses a period of time:
e.g. "I have been living here for 12 years."
Past III
Past Perfect
Past Perfect Progressive
Form:
had + past participle
Form:
had + been + Infinitive + -ing
Use:
talk about the pre-past activities completed before subsequent events referred to in the simple past.
Use:
something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past
Signal words:
already, just, never
Signal words:
how long, since, for
Signal words:
all day, how long, since, for
Future
Will - Future
Going to - future
Form:
will + Infinitive
Use:
prediction of a future action
spontaneous decision
respond to complaint or request for help
used in promises
Form:
be + going to + Infinitive
Use:
expresses that something is a plan
Will - Progressive
Going to be - Progressive
Form:
will be + present participle
Form:
be + going to be + present participle
Use:
- a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future (simple present)



- actions will be happening at the same time (parallel actions)


Passive:
form of to be + past part.
Passive:
form of to be + being + past part.
Passive:
form of to be + going to + be + p.p.
Passive:
will + be + p.p.
Passive:
will + be + being + p.p.
will-future vs. going-to-future
Exercise
dark clouds --> rain
See the dark clouds in the sky !
Seems like it is going to rain.
Weather forecast --> rain
Weather forecast: "In the early evening, there will very likely be some rain."
nasty teacher --> hard class test
The class test will probably be hard, because the teacher is a nasty person.
learnt much --> easy class test
The students have learnt much, so the class test is going to be easy.
Passive:
past form of to be + past part.
Passive:
past form of to be + being + p.p.
Passive:
form of to have + been + p.p.
Passive:
form of to have + been + being + p.p.
Passive:
had + been + p.p.
Passive:
had + been + being + p.p.
Exercise
simple past vs. past progressive
When I ... (call), you ... (watch) TV.
When I called you, you were watching TV.
The train ... (approach) ... while we ... (run) to the station
The train approached while we were running to the station.

Everybody ... (work) quietly, when suddenly the door ... (open) and a little girl ... (come) in.
Everybody was working quietly, when suddenly the door opened and a little girl came in.
Exercise
past perfect vs. past perfect progressive
Before I ... (work) in London, I ... work in Glasgow.
Before I worked in London, I had worked in Glasgow.
Before I ... (work) in London, I ... (work) in Glasgow for more than five years.
Before I worked in London, I had been working in Glasgow for more than five years.
I ... (know) that city very well because I ... (live) there before.
I knew that city very well because I had lived there before.
I ... (live) in that city for 20 years, so I ... (know) it very well.
I had been living in that city for 20 years, so I knew it very well.
Sources:
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/verbtenseintro.html
http://www.davidappleyard.com/english/tenses.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/grammar/zeitformen_tabelle_englisch.pdf
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