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Transcript of tenses
verbs of perception
every day, always, sometimes, often, usually, never
to be (am/are/is) + Infinitive + -ing
things happening around the time of speaking
not too distant future
long term enterprises
no state verbs
now, at the moment
Infinitive + -ed
activities at a specific time at the past
completed past activities that occurred in sequence
adverbs of frequency
past habits and routines
action in a story
I am doing
last, ago, in (+time), yesterday
was/were + Infinitive + -ing
two activities going on in parallel
temporary action (background)
Present perfect progressive
have/has + past participle
have/has + been + Infinitive + -ing
emphasize the results in the present of a recently completed past activity
has occurred rather than exactly when it occurred
just, yet, ever, never,already, so far, up to now, since, for, recently
emphasize activities that have a direct influence on the current situation
with since or for to say how long an continuing activity has been in progress
Since and for
'Since' for certain points in time:
e.g. "I have been living here since 2001."
'For' expresses a period of time:
e.g. "I have been living here for 12 years."
Past Perfect Progressive
had + past participle
had + been + Infinitive + -ing
talk about the pre-past activities completed before subsequent events referred to in the simple past.
something started in the past and continued up until another time in the past
already, just, never
how long, since, for
all day, how long, since, for
Will - Future
Going to - future
will + Infinitive
prediction of a future action
respond to complaint or request for help
used in promises
be + going to + Infinitive
expresses that something is a plan
Will - Progressive
Going to be - Progressive
will be + present participle
be + going to be + present participle
- a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future (simple present)
- actions will be happening at the same time (parallel actions)
form of to be + past part.
form of to be + being + past part.
form of to be + going to + be + p.p.
will + be + p.p.
will + be + being + p.p.
will-future vs. going-to-future
dark clouds --> rain
See the dark clouds in the sky !
Seems like it is going to rain.
Weather forecast --> rain
Weather forecast: "In the early evening, there will very likely be some rain."
nasty teacher --> hard class test
The class test will probably be hard, because the teacher is a nasty person.
learnt much --> easy class test
The students have learnt much, so the class test is going to be easy.
past form of to be + past part.
past form of to be + being + p.p.
form of to have + been + p.p.
form of to have + been + being + p.p.
had + been + p.p.
had + been + being + p.p.
simple past vs. past progressive
When I ... (call), you ... (watch) TV.
When I called you, you were watching TV.
The train ... (approach) ... while we ... (run) to the station
The train approached while we were running to the station.
Everybody ... (work) quietly, when suddenly the door ... (open) and a little girl ... (come) in.
Everybody was working quietly, when suddenly the door opened and a little girl came in.
past perfect vs. past perfect progressive
Before I ... (work) in London, I ... work in Glasgow.
Before I worked in London, I had worked in Glasgow.
Before I ... (work) in London, I ... (work) in Glasgow for more than five years.
Before I worked in London, I had been working in Glasgow for more than five years.
I ... (know) that city very well because I ... (live) there before.
I knew that city very well because I had lived there before.
I ... (live) in that city for 20 years, so I ... (know) it very well.
I had been living in that city for 20 years, so I knew it very well.