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The War of 1812
Transcript of The War of 1812
The War of 1812
3.Britain's First Nation allies
4.The American War Hawks
The war between Britain and France had created problems for the American trade. The British had enforced the threat of seizing and searching any American ships caught going into France. The Americans resented this.
Britain's stop-and-search tactics
The British would stop and search American ships to look for runaway British soldiers.The Americans felt insulted each time one of their ships were searched.
Britain's First Nation allies
The Americans believed that the British were supporting the First Nations in their struggle for the interior land of North America. Americans accused the First Nations of attacks on the American frontier settlements and thought this was enough of a reason to go to war with the British.
The American War Hawks
The American War Hawks were the ones who were pushing for war.They believed that the British were encouraging a Shawnee chief named Tecumseh to attack the American settlements.The War Hawks believed that the United States would control North America and all they would have to do was attack Canada.The War Hawks also believed the British would try to stop their emergence.They believed war with Canada would be a big step to defeating Britain.
The battle of Queenston Heights.
Americans attacked York and looted the town.
Americans launched an attack along the Niagara River, capturing Fort George,Fort Erie and Fort Chippewa.
An attack on the American camp at Stoney Creek.
An important naval encounter takes place at Put-In-bay on Lake Erie.Tecumseh is killed.
The first American army is defeated at Châteauguay, just south of Montreal.
The second American force is defeated at the battle of Crysler’s Farm.
The two enemies collide at Lundy’s Lane.It is the bloodiest battle of the war.Both armies are exhausted.
The war of 1812 was a civil war. It was also called the "Second War of Independence". This war was between the United States, Canada, and Britain. It started on June 18, 1812, and ended on February 16, 1815.
Important Battles of the War of 1812
There were three main battles of the War of 1812.
1. The Battle of Detroit
2.The Battle of Queenston Heights
3.The Battles of Washington and Baltimore
The Battle of Detroit
The next target in General Brock's plan of attack was Fort Detroit. The fort was defended by 2500 American soldiers under the command of General Hull. General Brock only had 400 soldiers under his command. A Shawnee chief named Tecumseh joined him adding 600 more soldiers. General Brock and Tecumseh had pulled some clever tricks to make it seem as if they had thousands of soldiers instead of hundreds of soldiers. After a fake attack, General Hull surrendered his soldiers.
The British attacked the Americans at Fort Erie but fail to force them out.
In Niagara, both sides are weary of war.The Americans begin to withdraw across the river.
The Battle of Queenston Heights is one of the most famous battles of the War of 1812. This war took place in October of 1812 at Queenston Heights on the Niagara River. American troops rowed across the river from New York and captured the high ground at Queenston that was being defended by British troops. As Brock was leading his troops, he was shot and killed. His attack gave additional British forces enough time to gather and push the Americans back across the river. The British ended up winning the battle.
The Battle of Washington and Baltimore
The American forces had destroyed and burned towns in Upper Canada including the town of York. So, the British attacked the American capitol in Washington, D.C. Government buildings such as the White House were burned down and destroyed. British ships fired at Fort McHenry from the Baltimore harbor. During this battle, Francis Scott Key wrote what would later on become the American National anthem.
The English originally settled in Virginia,British Co. The land was named after Queen Elizabeth the first since she was known as the “Virgin Queen".
Important people of the War of 1812
Tecumseh is a Shawnee war chief. He believed that the Native people needed to work together to protect their territory from the expanding United States. Tecumseh traveled to many Native nations and wanted them to form a confederacy.He felt that the land belonged to all nations who shared it. On October 5, 1813, he was killed by an American soldier during the battle of the Thames.
Sir George Prevost
Sir George Prevost was a strong but cautioned leader.
He was the Commander-in-Chief and Governor-General of the British North America during the war of 1812.He encouraged New Englanders to ignore U.S. President Thomas Jefferson's embargo against trading with France. He created "free ports" where duties, or taxes, we're not charged on goods
Thomas Jefferson is known as one of the greatest leaders of the United States.He was president from 1801 to 1809.In 1803, he bought an enormous area of land in North America from France. It was known as the Louisiana Purchase.Jefferson had strong republican views.A republican government is one ruled by its citizens rather than by a hereditary monarch.In 1807, Jefferson ordered an embargo that prevented U.S. merchant ships from sailing to foreign countries
James Madison is often called "The father of the Constitution".He was the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817.His decision was to start the War of 1812 with the British.
Please Tommy Please
Preparing for the War of 1812
On June 1st, 1812 President Madison asked the congress to declare war on Great Britain. Great Britain did not want to fight another war while the war in France was still raging. Great Britain had lost 290,000 troops since 1789. They could not spare the soldiers nor ships for a war in North America.
Great Britain was one of the worlds strongest powers, but its soldiers were busy fighting France in Europe. Great Britain only had 6,000 troops in Canada. In New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, about 60,000 people could be counted on as strong British supporters. Great Britain also hoped for the support of its native friends in the Kickapoo, Menominee, Shawnee, and Winnebago nations. In Lower Canada about 200,000 people were French and while some British questioned whether or not they would defend their land against the American invasions. There were as many as 50,000 British North American men eligible to volunteer in military service. In the United States there were more than 600,000 men who could oppose them.
When the United States declared war, people in the South, and West marched in parades and signed up to serve in the army. However, in Hartford, Connecticut, people felt so sad that they lowered their flags as a sign of mourning. Connecticut and Massachusetts at first refused to send any soldiers for this war. Some people wanted their states to leave the United States.
Reasons for Confidence
The End of the War
The War of 1812 ended on February 16,1812 with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent.There were no winners but both the Americans and British claimed victory.
Any comments or questions?
Made by:Helena, Alyssa and Acsshara
Sir Isaac Brock
Sir Isaac Brock was known as "The Hero of Upper Canada." He was an amazing strategic. He was a Major-General and commander-in-chief of regular military forces in Upper Canada. He strengthened his alliances with the First Nations. He lead his men to two very important victories during the war which are the surrender of Detroit and all of Michigan. His victories made him a hero. It also gave the Canadians the determination to keep fighting. He was killed in the battle of Queenston Heights on October 13, 1812.
Laura Ingersoll Secord was an ordinary girl with an amazing amount courage. She was born in Massachusetts,United States then moved with her family to Queenston in Upper Canada after the American Revolution. On June 21, 1813, she said that she overheard some U.S. soldiers planning a surprise attack for the British. Her husband was injured in the Battle of Queenston Heights and he was not able to travel. The next morning, she went out to warn the British for herself. She was finally able to deliver to the British Lieutenant James Fitzgibbon. Two days later, some Native allies ambushed the U.S. Soldiers. About 500 Americans surrendered. After Laura's death, she has been celebrated as a Canadian heroine.
James Madison is often called the "Father of the Constitution." He was the fourth president of the United States from 1809 to 1817. His decision was for his country to go to war with Britain in 1812. He was encouraged to go to war by the War Hawks. The War Hawks were vocal members of the U.S. Congress who wanted to proceed with war on Great Britain. He declared war or June 18, 1812.
The Experience for the settlers was tough.The American settlers and their settlements were attacked many times by the First Nations.
The End of the War
The War of 1812 ended on February 16, 1815, with the signing of the treaty of Ghent. Neither side were victorious but both claimed victory.
The War of 1812 had a powerful influence on what Canada would become. Before 1812 many settlers in Canada didn't feel Canadian but, fighting to protect their land from enemies helped these people feel Canadian.