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Motivation and Learning

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Peter Baggetta

on 30 April 2014

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Transcript of Motivation and Learning

Motivation and
Learning

Do I Want To Do This?
What is motivation?

What does it mean to be motivated?

How does motivation develop?
Achievement Motivation
motivation in situations in which competence is at issue
Can I Do This?
Self-Efficacy:
central to human effectiveness - Bandura
How can educators and schools increase the motivation of students to attend class and succeed?
"Directing choices in order to be effective in life pursuits" (Higgins, 2012)
Motivation...
…From the Latin movere (to move);
the process whereby goal-directed activity is initiated and sustained.
Early Views:
JAMES = Motivation results from native tendencies
FREUD = Behavior results from forces within the individual; motivation reflects psychic energy
SKINNER = Function of reinforcement
MASLOW = Motivation reflects the striving of individuals to self-actualize
Motivation is...
"Something that energizes, directs, and sustains behavior" (Moon, 2001)
"Psychological processes involved in the direction, vigor, and persistence of behavior" (Alexander, 2003)
Behavioral Approach:
Operant Conditioning (Skinner):
can be used to activate people
learning can become a means to an end
Drive Theories (Hull):
seek homeostasis and avoid disequilibrium
Needs > Drives > Goals > Behaviors >
Educational
Implications?
Optimal

Experience
Continual pursuit of happiness
explains choice of tasks, persistence, effort and engagement
Can I do this?
Do I want to do this? Why?
What do I need to do to succeed?
beliefs about one's capabilities to learn or perform (complete tasks/reach goals) specific activities and situations
Not self-esteem
"Can I" vs "Do I like myself/How do I feel about myself"
Influenced by choice of activities, participation, effort, persistence, interest and achievement
Development of Self-Efficacy:
Actual Performances
Observations/Social Comparison
Feedback from Others
Feedback from Self
Beliefs and Self-Theories
Answer Key to Goals Orientation

Add the points for each of the following set of questions. The category receiving the highest score represents your goal orientation.
 
ORIENTATION A:
Total for Questions 3, 4, 8, 13, 19 _____
 
ORIENTATION B:
Total for Questions 5, 7, 11, 16, 17 _____
 
ORIENTATION C:
Total for Questions 1, 9, 12, 14, 20 _____
 
ORIENTATION D:
Total for Questions 2, 6, 10, 15, 18 _____

Goal = target to which one aspires
Goal Orientations = set of behavioral intentions that determine how approach and engage in learning activities
Goal orientations relate significantly to achievement
Learning or Mastery Goals:

task or task-involved goals
desire for increased knowledge and competence
Performance Goals:

ego or ego-involved goals
often signifies a general desire to do well on a task so as to receive recognition and outpace others or to avoid shame or embarrassment

Approach and Avoidance:
Approach:
Goals can be “Approach” directed when initiate actions that lead toward the attainment of the goal
e.g., I seek out opportunities to demonstrate my knowledge
Avoidance:
Goals can be “Avoidance” directed when seek to avoid looking bad or feeling incompetent
e.g., I don’t want to look clumsy so I don’t try in PE class
ORIENTATION A = MASTERY ORIENTATION:
Total for Questions 3, 4, 8, 13, 19 _____
 
ORIENTATION B = PERFORMANCE ORIENTATION: APPROACH
Total for Questions 5, 7, 11, 16, 17 _____
 
ORIENTATION C = PERFORMANCE ORIENTATION: AVOIDANCE
Total for Questions 1, 9, 12, 14, 20 _____
 
ORIENTATION D = WORK AVOIDANCE
Total for Questions 2, 6, 10, 15, 18 _____
What explains the achievement of those with performance goals?
Are flexible and multiple goals possible?
Does optimal learning and performance only come from mastery goal orientation?
Paul Pintrich and Carol Dweck
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