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Medieval Europe

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by

Christopher Beckvold

on 4 December 2014

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Transcript of Medieval Europe

Medieval Europe
The Germanic Kingdoms
The Franks, a Germanic tribe, settled in
modern-day France
Kings fought over land
Charles Martel
, a powerful nobleman,
wanted to unite the Frankish nobles.
The pope supported Martel
During the 700s, Muslims moved into Spain and tried to
take southern France
In 732, at
the Battle of Tours
, Martel
stopped the Moors (Muslims)
from moving into the rest of Europe
The Early Middle Ages
The land around the Mediterranean Sea was united under the Roman Empire
467 – Western Roman Empire was broken up by Germanic invaders
Most of Europe had access to a major body of water
Trade and fishing
Rivers and mountain ranges were used as boundaries
After the fall of the Roman empire, parts of Italy carried on with Roman traditions
So did France and Spain
England and Northern France were invaded by the
Anglo-Saxons
A tribe that came from
Denmark and Germany
The Celts
, the native people of
Britain, moved north (Scotland),
west (Wales), or across the sea (Ireland)
800 – The pope declared
Charlemagne the emperor of the
Western Roman Empire ("Holy Roman
Emperor")
Charlemagne set up court
throughout his empire
A place to stay when he traveled
Encouraged education
Schools set up at court to
teach the children of
government officials
Charlemagne
("Charles the Great") was grandson to Martel
Helped the pope when a Germanic tribe attacked
Conquered the area between eastern Germany and northeastern Spain
Aachen
– capital of Charlemagne’s empire
Europe is Invaded
After Charlemagne died, the empire was divided
800s-900s – Series of invasions
Muslims came north through Spain
Magyrs came west from Hungary
Vikings came south from Scandinavia
Vikings
were also called Norsemen (north men)
Not much farm land = food came from the sea
Lived on the coast = good boat builders and traded
Began attacking Europe for more land
England, France, and Germany
Christianity had not fully spread to
northwest to the British Isles
Pope Gregory I ("Gregory the Great")
wanted all of Europe to be Christian
Asked monks to become
missionaries
Monk

– a man who devoted
his life to God and often led
a simple life
Lived together in monasteries
Missionaries
– people who are sent out to spread a religion
Monasteries provided:
Education
A place to rest for travelers
Hospitals
Monasteries had farms and a
scriptorium
Room where monks copied important writings
Preserved ancient Greek and Roman writings
Feudalism
A class system based on political and social ranking
Land-owning nobles ruled over and protected the people
The people served in a noble’s army or farmed his land
Some nobles (vassals) served a lord or a noble of a higher rank
Vassals who served in the lord’s army were called
knights.
Vassals who served a lord were given land
They ruled the people who lived on it
The land was called a
fief.
A serf:
Could not leave
the manor nor own
property
Could eventually gain
freedom
Three days per week they worked the land for the vassal
They had to turn over their crops as payment
In return, the lord protected the serfs
Everyday Life
Knights had a set of rules they were supposed to follow
Code of Chivalry
Be honest, brave, respectful, and fight fairly.
The women of the household took care of the manor when the men went off to war.
The Manorial System
The manor was located on a fief.
The lord ruled the land and peasants worked the land
Some peasants were free
Had rights and could move
Most peasants were
serfs
Peasants lived in one or two room cottages
They worked year-round doing farm work
No work on religious holidays
Farming was made easier by new ideas
An iron plow that could be pulled by a horse
Wind and water mills
Crop rotation
Trade and Cities
Collapse of the Roman Empire caused trade to stop in Western Europe
Money stopped being used and people bartered again
Roads and bridges fell apart
The feudal system made Europe safer
Trade increased
Towns grew into cities
People began to use money again
Skilled workers began to form
guilds
- business groups
A guild set standards and prices
Controlled who could join
Had a system for how to become a craftsman
A young man joined as an apprentice
He studied with a master for 5-7 years
When his time was up, he was allowed to take jobs
England during the Middle Ages
The many Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Alfred the Great (871-899 AD)
Across the English Channel was Normandy (part of France)
Named for the Norsemen (Vikings) who invaded and conquered it
King Edward of England died in 1066
His cousin William ruled Normandy and believed he should have the throne
A nobleman believed he should have the throne
1066 - William, the Duke of Normandy took an army to England
Won the kingdom at the Battle of Hastings
Known as
William the Conqueror

The Magna Carta
1215 - King John was not a fair ruler
He abused his power
The nobles forced him to sign the
Magna Carta
at Runnymede
This document stated the
rights and duties of both the
king and vassals
Gave vassals rights and
prevented the king
from having too much power
Full transcript