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Sound Equipment

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Rachel Helms

on 2 August 2018

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Transcript of Sound Equipment

What equipment is needed to make sound happen?
What is a Source?
How does a microphone work?
Sound Equipment
Types of Microphones
Pre- Amp
1. Source
2. Pre-Amp
3. Signal Processor
4. Amp
5. Output
The item that generates sound.
Types of sources...
1. CD player
2. Tape deck
3. Turn Table/ Record player
4. Computer
5. MP3 Player
6. Microphones
Sound waves go into the mic head...the diaphragm pushes the waves to the coil. The coil then turns the sound waves into a digital signal.
Microphones pick up sound based off the direction of the mic....the three standard directions are...
1. Omni-Directional
2. Cardioid
3. Bi-Directional
1. Wired Microphones (known as condenser mics, which need power from the board)
2. Wireless Microphones (known as dynamic mics, they power themselves through the coil in the mic head, the batteries are for the antenna)
What is a pre amp?
A pre amp gives power to the source before it goes to the mixer. It boasts the signal making it stronger and easier to change or control.
We alter the pre amp through the gain knob. So the gain should always start at zero and as you alter the sound go up as needed.
Signal Processor
What is a signal processor?
It is the mixing board or effect board that adjusts the source signal/ sound coming in. It changes the sound however we want it.
Signal Processor
Phantom Power
48v = Phantom power
Phantom power is extra power that comes from the board to operate condenser mics (coral mics) or power instruments (guitars etc...) and is activated through the board. These devices don't work and don't have power with out this phantom power.
Signal Processors
Equalizers (EQ)
Equalizers change to quality/ frequency of sound.
- This can really change the quality of a show and if done wrong can hurt you more than help.
- You have a high frequency, mid frequencies, and a low frequency.
- To help cut feedback you can cut out the frequencies that are creating that feedback by cutting them out.
What do amps do?
Amps take the changed signal from the board and add more power to it and send it to the output. All out puts need to have an amp.
What are Outputs?
Outputs are our speakers
Passive Speakers: have an external amp that plugs in...most common type in theatre.
Active Speakers: Have the amp built into the speaker itself. The cone at the top is the high frequencies and the round bottom is the lows. You always want the cone to go vertical
Line Array: Multiple speakers arranged vertically.
Holding A Mic/ Mic Placement
You should always hold the mic from the middle.
If you hold it around the top and cover part of the screen you block how much the mic can pic up.
If you hold it by the bottom you block the signal form coming out the antenna
You should always hold the mic at chin height, straight up and down, and about a fist away from your face.
Never point the mic head toward the floor even when you are not speaking into it.
Countrymen Mics/ Over The Ear Mics
These over the ear mics are meant to mold and shape to the face. Its very important that it's molded correctly.
You start by molding the ear part, the junction between the cord and the mic base should fit in the grove under your ear. The part with the coating wraps around the back of the ear to the front and should be tight so they grip the head.
The mic boom should touch the skin but the actual mic head should be pulled away from the mouth slightly.
The mic head should also be slightly below the mouth to help avoid the sound of breath or breathing.
The cord should then be threaded down the costume to the body pack.
The antenna on the body pack needs to be free and not tucked in, and placed in the small of the back.
If the signal cuts in and out then move the body pack to the side
What is Feedback:
Feedback is where the sound loops back into the system.

Feedback is created when the microphone is between the source and the speaker.
Full transcript