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Jazz, Blues and Ragtime
Transcript of Jazz, Blues and Ragtime
I've got the Blues...
The Blues originated in America around when people were being taken slaves.
During the 18th and 19th century, thousands of people were shipped across to America from Africa. The conditions were dire and as a result, many Africans were lost before even reaching American shores.
Those who had endured the hardship were then sold at auctions, chained up and forced to work in the cotton fields.
Let's go back to basics:
The Blues in their most basic form originated from an
song which told of the hardship of slave life.
As it developed, the song became a
lines (one line sung twice with a final line meant to represent a resignation or wish)
was a key element to Blues Music, and much of it was
It was common on the plantations for a 'leader' to
out the first line and for the rest of the slaves to respond by singing the same line back. This was known as "
Call and Response
12 Bar Blues:
3, 2, 1...GO!
Coming round is a scrunched up piece of paper - if you catch it, write down one thing you know about
, then pass it on!
Listen to this next excerpt:
As well as the Call and Response element of the Blues, there was also a distinctive chord pattern in the music:
C / / / C / / / C / / / C / / /
F / / / F / / / C / / / C / / /
G / / / F / / / C / / / C / / /
This progression of chords can be applied to any key, so as to suit different voice types and instruments.
Key words so far:
- The performer makes up music during the actual performance, they don’t have the melody written down to help, although there may be suggested chords as a guide
Call and Response
- Where an appointed leader sings or '
out a phrase and the rest
by singing the phrase back.
12 Bar Blues
: a distinctive chord pattern lasting 12 bars developed by the slaves of America during their time of oppression.
The growth of Blues:
Although slavery was finally abolished in America as a result of the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865, the music which had developed throughout the long years of slavery and had been passed down through the generations remained strong.
They eventually moved from voices to other instruments such as
, which were accompanied by
Another distinctive element of not only Blues music but all Jazz is the Walking bass.
It was developed from the original 12 Bar blues pattern, the notes of the chord were broken up and played one after the other to give the music a solid and
Listen while it's played:
- Strongly accented notes playing off or against the beat. Syncopation occurs in all kinds of music
Less Talk, More Glock!
Now it's your turn. Grab your first or second instrument and collect your music, we're gonna play the Blues...
Here's something a little extra:
As Blues music continued to develop, a significant structure was apparent.
The 12 bar blues and the walking bass were still the main elements of Blues Music, as well as syncopated melodies.
This main melody in Blues music, and in Jazz in general is known as
After the head is played (usually twice through) the bass piano and drums (the
) play the 12 bar blues while a soloist
over the repeated chord pattern.
Bring it all back now:
- To explore the
- To explore different
- To continue with
Today we have:
Gained an understanding of
Music and it's origins
Have an understanding of the concepts,
Call and response, 12 bar blues, walking bass, syncopation
Can confidently play
What do you notice?
Highlight one thing you notice about it?
For Next Week:
" on the NQ Music page
Look at the notes and learn them on your chosen instrument.
Bonus: Choose a jazz musician and listen to one of
their pieces - take note of your choice.
I will check your work!!!
Listen out for both
12 Bar Blues
in this next expert.
So far we have looked at:
Music as a result of this.
We have also covered the following concepts:
Call and response
12 Bar Blues
We have also looked at:
of Miles Davis'
using a set rhythm and the
of the chords.
We are going to apply our knowledge of Blues Concepts to exploring more of
We shall explore the
and look at its importance during
Look at the music of
It's all change....
of the slaves in
as a result of the
, many of the
from all over to the larger cities, most notably to
Each influx of migrants brought with them
and of course different
, such as
- in essence,
With such a melee of styles,
dramatically in popularity and quickly
of being the music of the
It don't mean a thing....
...if it ain't got that swing!
of jazz music brought with it an
in the amount of
in size from
to much bigger ensembles, with as much as
As a result of so many musicians playing together, the
tended to be
learned by ear
These bands came to be known as
, and proved
among all races.
The Andrews Sisters
Post War Years
In The Mood - Glenn Miller Orchestra
Glenn Miller : 1904 - 1944
Born 1st March 1904, Alton Glenn Miller was an American Big Band leader, arranger and Trombonist
His arrangements of well known classics such as
Little Brown Jug
In the Mood
rocketed him to fame in the States and beyond.
Having such a distinctive sound also brought him fame on the silver screen. Have a listen to this next clip form the 1941 hit
Sun Valley Serenade.
At 38, he was too old to join the infantry but, intent on doing his bit for the Second World War, he convinced the US army to accept him as an Army Musician.
During his time in the Army, he took charge of an army band and arranged pieces for them to perform as entertainment for the troops.
His music proved a real morale booster for soldiers during the war, and he continued in this way until December 1944, when a plane he was traveling in disappeared en route to England.
Chattanooga Choo Choo - Glenn Miller
The War Years:
Another group famed for their work in entertaining the troops throughout the Second World War were The Andrews Sisters.
Have a listen to this next excerpt of their hit
Boogie Woogie Bugle Boy of Company B
, and see if you can spot the unusual vocal technique:
is the term given to
improvised nonsense words
which are sung by the soloist.
Very often the singers are attempting to
are very often
Big bands continued to be popular after the war, and singers or "crooners" such as
found fame in being accompanied by such bands.
Ella Fitzgerald -
How High The Moon
Many of the slaves emigrated to cities such as
after their liberation
Jazz bands expanded in size from
to bigger ensembles with
These bands, known as
were popular during the war
Jazz Singers would
For Next Week:
Can you name the concept?
Last week we
Looked at the
We also listened to examples of the following concepts
To explore at the origins of
To look at the composer
To look at the
We will know we have achieved this when:
Today we are going:
We can identify the concepts
Can apply our knowledge of the
Maple Leaf Rag:
The clip we just watched contained an excellent example of
, like much of the music in this topic, was another product of the
It was most
popular between 1897
, and is most commonly played on a
This was mainly down to the fact that many of the
in which the music was played were
for a band.
Ragtime is easily recognisable for it's
nature, and much of it is
usually contained lot's of
and was a big
to the smooth music of the
was usually accompanied in the
- A rhythmic accompaniment with a bass note played on the beat and a chord off the beat.
and follow this excerpt and
out for the
Scott Joplin (1867 - 1914):
The King of Ragtime
Born in Texas in 1867,
Scott Joplin is one the
During his career he wrote
44 ragtime pieces
1 Ragtime Ballet
Some of his most famous pieces include
Maple Leaf Rag
Side note: The Pianola
was a popular addition to any household during the
early 20th century.
was in effect a
all you had to do was
and pedal with your
could be inserted into the pianola so that people could listen to their
, in the same way that we can listen to a CD or an iPod.
The Andrews Sister -
Don't Sit Under the Apple
FREEZE! Its a Pop Quiz:
Using the coloured section of your homework diaries, determine whether each excerpt is Ragtime or not:
Today we have:
Explored the origins of
and listened to some examples
Gained some basic knowledge of the Ragtime composer
Applied our knowledge of the
, look out for the
In the American unit, we're mainly focusing on Jazz.
Throughout the unit, we will be looking at the following:
- Scat Singing
We will also be looking at some of the features (concepts) which are common to these styles.
As well as developing our
skills, we will also be focusing on other areas of learning:
- We will be working to
a piece of music
- We will also be working
to research a
Your findings will then be presented to the class, either by
- To briefly discuss
- To highlight some of the
- To continue with
Jazz - what we know:
Using the space below, we're going to collate what we know about Jazz so far:
Have a listen:
Now that we've learned how Jazz sounds, let's try playing it:
Your task for the next few lessons is to develop your improvisation skills.
The cheat sheet which you have copied down in your jotters will help you.
The aim is to have a completed performance of our own improvisation alongside a swing backing track.
Remember: Be Creative, Be Adventurous, Be Free!
For this task, you are to remain in your groups:
Each group will have a bundle of concepts which we have covered (and some which we haven't).
Your task is to listen to each excerpt and select two concepts out of your bundle which you can hear in each excerpt.
There are four pieces of music, and you will hear an excerpt of each TWICE.
Let's do one together: