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Information Systems by palash mallik
Transcript of Information Systems by palash mallik
Repetitive Tasks Humans are better at:
Qualitative information Decision Making as a Component of Problem Solving Categories of IS in Organization Sales and marketing
Selling products and services
Making products and services
Maintaining financial records; accounting for flow of funds
Attracting, developing, (personnel) maintaining the labour force;maintaining employee records Level of System Function of organization Types Of IS ESS are designed to incorporate data about external events, such as new tax laws or competitors, but they also draw summarized information from internal MIS and DSS DSS help managers make decisions that are unique, rapidly changing, and not easily specified in advance
DSS use internal information from TPS and MIS, they often bring in information from external sources, such as current stock prices or product prices of competitors Archimedes Right Information Right Information
to Right people *what is the amount of money one will
get after 100 years if he makes 100 taka as
fixed deposite for five year where money
is double in every five years? ? Examples An airline seat reservation system ATM Transaction POS History In 1979 Gene Mosher's Old Canal Cafe in Syracuse,
New York was using POS software written by Mosher that ran on an Apple II
to take customer orders at the restaurant's front entrance and print complete
preparation details in the restaurant's kitchen Efficient: With the aid of common barcode scanners and touch screen interfaces, you can process your sales quickly and efficiently Easy to learn: No expensive training for staff as easy to learn. Easy to use: Requires minimum keystrokes and the mouse is never required Flexible: Handles any combination of discounts, taxes, returns, credits and sales specials in one easy transaction. Automatic: Applies automatic discounts or preferred price levels to special customers Accommodating: If something is not in stock can send a customer order to the purchase order system Secure: Can view and automatically calculated profit margins and stock counts. Versatile: Prints sales slips, price quotes and account invoices. Features Features Rapid response: Reliability: Inflexibility: Businesses cannot afford to have customers waiting for a TPS to respond, the turnaround time from the input of the transaction to the production for the output must be a few seconds or less Many organizations rely heavily on their TPS; a breakdown will disrupt operations or even stop the business. For a TPS to be effective its failure rate must be very low. If a TPS does fail, then quick and accurate recovery must be possible If a TPS were flexible, there would be too many opportunities for non-standard operations, for example, a commercial airline needs to consistently accept airline reservations from a range of travel agents, accepting different transactions data from different travel agents would be a problem. Some Rules Atomic: The transaction will either happen or not. If one account is debited, then another account has to be credited. Consistent: The transaction processing system must always be consistent with its own rules. If errors occur in the transaction on either side, then the transaction will fail Isolating: Isolating transactions means that other processes never see information during the transaction. They may see information before or after the transaction, but not during the transaction Durable: No matter what problems occur to the system, there are back-ups in place in the transaction processing system to ensure that the record stays permanent Characteristics Relevance Accurate Timely Cost-Effective Information should be relevant to the strategic decision that company management is currently reviewing MIS information should be accurate and avoid any inclusions of estimates or probable costs. Many management decisions are based on information from a certain time period, such as quarterly or annual periods The MIS needs to be a cost-effective and efficient system for gathering information Typical Inputs and Outputs Inputs: Information from the TPS Outputs: hard and softcopy reports
Exception reports Bank Loan Company History Bank Statement Tax Certificate National Id Card Applicable areas The time and place in which a transaction is made, points of sale computer systems terminals. Reading product tags, updating inventory are some of the operations performed at the point of sale POS Master Details Transaction Alteration Order Report Utility Security Books
Address Type Country
Bank General Transaction Details Goods Received Note
Cash pick Up
Terminal wise cash Balance
Physical Stock Taken Approval Details Goods Inward Approval(Supplier)
Goods Return Approval(Supplier)
Approval For Customer(Dispatch)
Approval For Customer(Received) Branch Transfer Details Transfer In
Transfer out It manages alteration details against sales when item come from alteration Purchase Order
Purchase Order Cancel
Sales Order Cancel utility that attempts to glean quite a lot of information about a system from its Programmable Option Select (POS) registers Customer Listing
Customer Detail Report
Vendor Detail Report
Accounts Payable Reports Woodland who was an IBM employee and Silver built the first barcode reader in 1952. This first prototype used a 500-watt light bulb and a RCA photo multiplier vacuum tube. 1981 First Restaurant POS
1979 A POS scanning system was developed.
1971 The first electronic cash register (NCR).
1970 The first POS terminal (NCR).
1884 NCR founded in the U.S.
1878 The cash register was invented by James Ritty. Hotel/Motel
Video Store General Retail
Gift Shops MIS refers broadly to a computer-based system that provides managers with the tools for organizing, evaluating and efficiently running their departments. Right information in Right way Efficiency
Speedy Decision making Achieve Canadian National Railway Examples Clinical decision support system Characteristics of a DSS Handles large amounts of data from different sources Provides report and presentation flexibility Performs complex, sophisticated analysis and comparisons using advanced software packages Capabilities of a DSS defining overall vision
strategic organizing and staffing
crisis management Capabilities of an ESS Examples SDLC Waterfall Model Hannibal Waterfall Strengths Easy to understand, easy to use
Provides structure to inexperienced staff
Milestones are well understood
Sets requirements stability
Good for management control (plan, staff, track)
Works well when quality is more important than cost or schedule Waterfall Deficiencies All requirements must be known upfront
Deliverables created for each phase are considered frozen inhibits flexibility
Can give a false impression of progress
Does not reflect problem-solving nature of software development iterations of phases
Integration is one big bang at the end
Little opportunity for customer to preview the system (until it may be too late) When to use the Waterfall Model Requirements are very well known
Product definition is stable
Technology is understood
New version of an existing product
Porting an existing product to a new platform. Prototyping Advantages of Prototyping Can be used when customer is not sure about what he wants
Faster way of finalizing the requirements
Useful for new technologies and domains Disadvantages of Prototyping A prototype if used in a production environment, may lack quality
Overall maintainability may be overlooked
The customer may want the prototype delivered.
Process may continue forever (scope creep) Spiral Model Advantages Avoidance of Risk is enhanced.
Strong approval and documentation control.
Implementation has priority over functionality.
Additional Functionality can be added at a later date. Highly customized limiting re-usability
Applied differently for each application
Risk of not meeting budget or schedule
Possibility to end up implemented as the Waterfall framework Disadvantages When to use Spiral Model Long-term project commitment is unwise because of potential changes to economic priorities
Users are unsure of their needs
Requirements are complex
New product line
Significant changes are expected (research and exploration) Guochanhua A framework that describes the activities performed at each stage of a software development project. Computer A computer is an electronic device that can process data.
A computer is an electronic device that processes information by performing mathematical calculations or logical operations under the direction of a stored program. What is Computer? History of Computer Types of computer Supercomputer
Microcomputer computer was recorded in 1613, The Machine That Changed The World Agile Agile development focus on rapid delivery of working software
by breaking a large project into series of small sub projects
that are completed in short periods of time
using iteration and continuous feedback. Gartner defines Agility as "the ability of an organization to sense environmental change and respond efficiently and effectively to that change. Oracle 125.91 b
Groupon 1.35 b IS VS IT Information Systems is a large umbrella referring to systems designed to create, store, manipulate, or disseminate information IT deals with the technology involved in the systems themselves INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Other related components are used to build INFORMATION SYSTEMS Payroll System Inventory System Marketing System Customer Service System