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Copy of Camera Obscura
Transcript of Copy of Camera Obscura
& Black and White Photography By: Jesse McMillan Engl. 377/377H: Medieval & Renaissance Britain
Professor Denhard ...what is a camera obscura? You might ask... Step 2: Step 5: Step 3: Step 4: (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Step 1: three two one An optical phenomenon in which light rays reverse
They pass through a tiny hole and appear upside down A Camera Obscura is... When the heck did one discover this? May have been used by stone age man in the world's first cave drawings
Known since ancient times
Aristotle in 384 B.C.
Second mention by Alhazen in A.D. 965-1038 The Discovery Leonardo da Vinci
Detailed accounts in his notebooks written in the mid-13th century
Remained unknown for almost three centuruies, but were eventually published in 1797 An Artist's Fascination "If the image of the sun at the time of an eclipse - provided it is not a total one - passes though a small round hole on to a plane surface opposite, it will be crescent-shaped . . . the image of the sun only shows this property when the hole is very small. If the hole is larger the image changes, and the change is more marked." A Description by Alhazen Its invention has been ascribed by various writers, too! Roger Bacon (1214-1294) Passages were not discovered until 1910 by historians
Well acquainted with Alhazen's works
Understood the principle of camera obscura
Also saw eclipses and outside images Aristotle Understood the optical principle of the camera obscura
Did not pursue the discovery
Observed the crescent shape of a partially eclipsed sun on ground Roger Bacon's Observation "Mirrors may be so arranged that we may see whatever we desire and anyting in th ehouse or in the street, and everyone looking at those things will see them as if they are real." Are you wondering who was the next to observe this phenomenon? John Peckham - Archbishop of Canterbury "When at the time of an eclipse of the sun, its rays are received in a dark place through a hole of any shape, it is possible to see the crescent-shape getting smaller as the moon covers the sun." Reminder: In case you have forgotten, the camera obscura has not been designed. These are only mere observations by individuals! Guillaume De Saint-Cloud (1285) French astronomer who had publishings in a manuscript almanac "On the 5th day of June, it happened that those who too intently observed the sun [during the eclipse] found their vision was impaired when they went into the shade..." It is said that between 1285 and 1544, there were more observations; however, they were not too important to document in the research. First Illustration Gemma Frisius (pupil to a German mathematician)
First published illustration of the camera obscura
Observing a solar eclipse in January 1544 at Louvain Other observations by artists were documented as well! Da Vinci's Description "When the images of illuminated objects pass through a small round hole into a very dark room, if you receive them on a piece of white paper placed vertically in the room...you will see on the paper all these natural shapes and colours." Yes, it was officially used as an aid to artists; however, it was not officially suggested until... Giovanni Battista Porta 1538-1615
First to suggest its use for drawing
His description was much fuller than others
Published Magia naturalis which helped diseminate knowledge of the camera obscura
Descriptions first appeared in four books, and later more than twenty! Porta's Description Porta explains that the room must be thouroughly darkened, and light through only the small hole.
"In this way, you will perceive everything outside which is lit up by the sun, and you will see the people in the street walking upside down..." Porta also describes its use, too! An Aid for Artists "If you cannot paint, you can by this arrangement draw [the outline of the images] with a pencil. You have then only to lay on the colours. This is done by reflecting the image downwards on to a drawing-board with paper. And for a person who is skilful this is a very easy matter." Accumulated a vast knowledge of science, art, and nature
Traveled throughout Italy, France, and Spain
Gathering of scholars at his home in Naples known has "Academy of Secrets"
Obliged to contribute something not generally known that might be useful Porta's Secret So, how did Porta acquire all this knowledge of the camera obscura? Although not relevant to this
research, one of the things
this group came up with included:
"How to correct the ill scent of the armpits" Fun Fact:
The camera obscura was also used for hunting & battles of enemies. Cinematography Porta was one of the first to arrange a theatrical production
Some audience members were unaware of this creation and did not understand his explanations, and, therefore, accused Porta of sorcery
One of the earliest forms of cinema I'm sure you'd like to see a visual of what fascinated these scholars... Robert Boyle (1669) The construction of the camera obscura was known to have begun in 1669 "If a pretty large box be so contrived that there may be towards one end of it a fine sheet of paper stretched like the leather of a drum head...you may see a lively representation..." 1st portable box camera Robert Hooke (1680) Presented to the Royal Society
Demonstrated the laws of vision
The only thing the portable camera obscura lacked was an insertion for an artist's hand Johann Zahn (1685) Very little neat box which could be taken about anywhere
Different than others, in that, they have a lens and focusing screen At this point, how popular was
the camera obscura? Popularity of Camera Obscura Beginning of 18th century, it had become a craze
It was "one of the finest sights of the world" -John Harris, London (cc) image by jantik on Flickr 1775
Tent camera obscura 1680
Portable camera obscura 1685
Reflex box c.o. 1711
Sedan chair c.o. 1733
Camera obscura 1769
Table c.o. 1770
Table c.o. Early 19th century
Camera obscura To give you a visual, here is a timeline for all the camera obscuras that were created... You're probably wondering how this led to modern photography? Joseph Nicephore Niepce First photographic image w/ camera obscura
He "let light draw the picture"
Placed an engraving on metal plate coated in bitumen, and then exposed it to light
When placed in a solvent, gradually came an image
Niepce's photograph required eight hours of light exposure to create and after appearing would soon fade away. Louis Daguerre Experimenting to find a way to capture an image
Took a dozen years to reduce exposure time to less than 30 minutes and keep the image from disappearing afterwards.
Inventor of the first practical process of photography.
In 1829, he formed a partnership with Joseph Nicephore Niepce to improve the process Niepce had developed.
In 1839 after several years of experimentation and Niepce's death, Daguerre developed a more convenient and effective method of photography, naming it after himself - the daguerreotype.
In 1839, Daguerre and Niepce's son sold the rights for the daguerreotype to the French government and published a booklet describing the process. The daguerreotype gained popularity quickly; by 1850, there were over seventy daguerreotype studios in New York City alone.
His is known to have started the birth of modern photography Let's take a look at the process of B&W photograhy in the darkroom! The next step in making the image... My visit to the camera obscura museum in Edinburgh looked similar to this... Thank you for watching! Descriptions made their way into most works
Widespread as an aid to painters