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Humanism (ARCS Model)
Transcript of Humanism (ARCS Model)
and stimulate a child's motivation to learn.
He used a problem solving approach to
create motivational aspects of a learning
environment. Motivational Design Are you the teacher that has dull boring lessons or possibly the teacher that is so unpredictable and creative that your students do not what is expected of them? A major goal of motivational design is
to prepare motivational tactics that are
in accordance with the learners
motivational needs. These tactics
must also be in alignment with the
overall instructional plan. In order for a teacher to design motivational instruction, the teacher must: Design Process There are 4 categories in Kellers ARCS Model: ARCS Model 4
Categories Attention Relevance Confidence Attention can be gained in 3 ways Methods for grabing learner attention include: Use conrete examples that are of relevance to the learner to increase the learner's motivation.
Keller describes 6 strategies Use conrete examples that are of relevance to the learner to increase the learner's motivation.
Keller describes 6 strategies:
1. Experience- instruction uses a learner's prior knowledge to comprehend new skills.
2. Present Worth- instruction states the current value of the instruction; how it will affect the learner today.
3. Future Usefulness- instruction ties into a learners future goals; how it will affect the learner tomorrow.
4. Needs Matching- capitalizing on the dynamics of achievement, risk taking, power and affiliation.
5. Modeling- learners model after instructors, tutors, other students who have finished the instruction successfully
6. Choice- allow learners to choose their own methods to complete or organize their work. An instructor should:
Help learners to discover their success. As a learners confidence grows, their motivation will increase.
Provide meaningful oportunites for success.
Provide objectives, performance requirements, and evaulation criteria prior to instruction so learners are aware and have a clear understanding of the requirements for success.
Gradually increase levels of difficulty to build learner confience and keep learner interest.
Provide learners with elements of control so learners feel they are in control of their product. Their success is a result of the amount of effort they put into the product.
Provide feedback and support for learner success.
Provide plenty of opportunites for learners to master a skill before moving onto a more difficult skill. Learning must be rewarding or statisfying. There are numerous ways to achieve learner satisfaction: intrinstic rewards, extrinstic rewards, and equity. Resources:
http://www.learning-theories.com/kellers-arcs-model-of-motivational-design.html Analyze learner's motivational needs Consider instructional processes that stimulate motivation Select motivational tactics that are consistent with instruction and learner's needs Use and evaluate motivational tactics Attention Relevance Confidence Confidence Satisfaction Perceptual Arousal Inquiry Arousal Variability capture interest using uncertainty and surprise elements. (i.e. unexcepted or surprising events of instruction) stimulates curiosity by posing questions and problems.
(i.e. active thinking) sustain interest by using a varitey of instructional methods.
(i.e. video, discussions, etc) Active participation- hands on activities (i.e. games, roleplay) Humor- use a small amount humor to mantain interest use a devil's advocate approach Specific Examples- Use visuals that spark intrigue, stories, etc. Inquiry- Pose questions or problems Experience- instruction uses a learner's prior knowledge to comprehend new skills. Present Worth- instruction states the current value of the instruction; how it will affect the learner today. Future Usefulness- instruction ties into a learners future goals; how it will affect the learner tomorrow. Needs Matching- capitalizing on the dynamics of achievement, risk taking, power and affiliation. Modeling- learners model after instructors, tutors, other students who have finished the instruction successfully Choice- allow learners to choose their own methods to complete or organize their work. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Many students are hesitant to participate in class. An instructor must... Provide opportunites for learner to use their new skills, so the learner feels their new skill is useful or beneficial. Provide feedback and reinforcement- Receiving feedback from the instructor can produce motivation when learners appreciate the results. Do not reward learners for easy tasks; the learner will not feel like they are increasing their skill levels. Satisfaction Indentify elements of human motivation Determine characteristics of instructional materials Conflict and Incongruity- or