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Imperialism In Somalia
Transcript of Imperialism In Somalia
Imperialism In Somalia
By: Jordan Legg & Edie Parungao
Somalia's capital is Mogadishu, and the country currently has a transitional government ("Somalia").
Government status is unstable but the U.S. is providing assistance
U.S. foreign policy objectives in Somalia are to promote political and economic stability, prevent the use of Somalia as a haven for international terrorism, and alleviate the humanitarian crisis caused by years of conflict, drought, flooding, and poor governance.
Map of Somalia During Imperialism
Background info on
Somalia was imperialized by Britain and Italy in the 19th century
Britain gained a land protectorate on Somalia in 1887 (Brimson).
Italy took control of Somalia gradually by uniting its treaty- granted territories in 1927 ("Somalia").
Why did Somalia get Imperialized?
"The United Kingdom took the opportunity to seize the coast with the purpose of safeguarding the trade route through the Suez canal (which opened in 1869)" ("Somalia").
Besides being a perfect coastal trading location Somalia had abundant natural resources including: "uranium, iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, and likely oil reserves" ("Africa:: Somalia").
Britain vs. Italy
Italy consolidated its power in 1927 by uniting its treaty-granted territories under the banner of Italian Somaliland. During World War II, Italian troops from Italian Somaliland invaded British Somaliland in 1940 and expelled the british. A year later, the United Kingdom regained its protectorate and seized the italian territory ("Somalia").
"On July 1, 1960, Italian Somaliland was granted independence and immediately joined the British Somaliland, which had been given independence just four days earlier. The two united as Somalia, and Aden Abdullah Osman Daar was elected the country's first president" ("Somalia").
In 1905 Britain ruled first indirectly, controlled by Colonial Affairs Office ("Somalia").
How did Somalia gain independence?
After WWII, a treaty in 1947 said that Italy had to give up its lands in Africa, which were handed over to the U.N. The U.N. decided that the Italian administration would control Italian Somaliland for 10 years, after which they would be granted independence. Also, the British would relinquish British Somaliland in 1960 ("Somalia").
Currently Somalia is without a government and is extremely corrupt. After Somalia gained independence in 1960, power was peacefully entrusted to Abdirashid Ali Shermarke in 1967. This was when they had a democracy. In 1969 he was assassinated, and Siad Barre took control. Since then, no stable form of government has lasted. To this day they are mainly ruled by rival/ warring factions and clan warlords ("Somalia").
Lingering problems that stem from imperialism
There are many incidents of piracy around Somalia, and a dislike of westerners may have been instilled in Somalis after colonization.
Tribes of Somali people that had migrated into Ethiopia before imperialism were separated from the rest of their people when Europe started dividing those countries. So in the 70's, (1977- 1978) there were many Somalis that lived in the Ogaden region of Ethiopia who wanted to unite that region with Somalia out of nationalism, which started the Ogaden War (Brunberg).
Geographic information on Somalia
Land area: 246,201 sq. mi.
Highest point: Shimbiris 8,038 ft.
Coastline: 1,880 mi.
Climate: principally desert
Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia. It's the horn of Africa and sits strategically near India and the Suez Canal, which is why Britain and Italy wanted it.
Natural resources: uranium, largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, and likely oil reserves
Social information on Somalia
Official Languages: Somali, and Arabic (Brimson).
Religion: 99% muslim (Brimson).
By the eighteenth century, the Somalis essentially had developed their present way of life which is based on pastoral nomadic and Islamic faith
90% of the population belongs to one of these five clans: Bantu, Arabs, Indisans, Italians, and Pakistanis (Brimson).
"Africa:: Somalia." Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2014.
Brimson, Samuel. "Somalia." Nations of the World. Vol. 7. N.p.: World Almanac Library, 2004. 11. Print.
Brunberg, Jon. "Ethiopia vs Somalia (The Ogaden War)." The Polynational War Memorial. N.p., 15 Aug. 2013. Web. 06 Mar. 2014.
"Somalia." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 7 Mar. 2014.
"Somaliland: Past, Present and Future, Part 3." Think Africa Press. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2014.