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Prezi Disability Handbook
Transcript of Prezi Disability Handbook
Delay Professor Pullen
Spring 2013 The 13 Disabilities Def: A neurobehavioral developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction Autism Def: Associated hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness. Deaf-Blindness Def: The failure to meet certain developmental milestones, such as sitting, walking, and talking, at the average age. Developmental delay may indicate a problem in development of the central nervous system. Disability Handbook By Ashley Gaughan With Professor Pullen
Spring 2013 Hearing Impairments
-Including Deafness Characteristics:
Lack of English literacy.
Low academic achievement.
Isolated and low social functioning. Emotional Disturbances Def: A condition exhibiting one or more of the listed characteristics over a long period of time to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Mental Retardation Definition:
Significantly sub average general
intellectual functioning, existing concurrently
with deficits in adaptive behavior and
manifested during the developmental period
that adversely affects child's educational
performance. Multiple Disabilities Definition: Associated impairments (such as mental retardation-blindness, mental
retardation-orthopedic impairments, etc.). The combination of which
causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated
in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. The term
does not include deaf-blindness. Autism Emotional Disturbance
Deaf-Blindness Intellectual Disability
Visual Impairments Multiple Disabilities
Developmental Delay Orthopedic Impairments
Hearing Impairments Other Health Impairments
Specific Learning Disabilities Traumatic Brain Injury
Speech or Language Impairments Characteristics:
Impaired social characteristics.
Communication and language deficits.
Intellectual functioning (gifted or limited).
Unusual responses to sensory stimuli.
Insistence on sameness and perseverations.
Ritualistic and unusual behavior patterns.
Severe problem behavior. Modifications:
Carefully planned instruction.
Meticulously delivered lessons (detail oriented).
Continual evaluation/ continual analysis (adaptation).
Picture activity schedules.
Social stories. Prevalence:
autism occurs in as many as 1 in 150 people.
boys are affected about 4 times more often
than girls. Medication: No medication can improve the core signs of autism, although certain medications can help control symptoms, i.e. antidepressants for anxiety, and antipsychotic drugs are sometimes used to treat severe behavioral problems. Characteristics: Slow acquisition rates for learning new skills.
Poor generalization and maintenance of newly learned skills.
Limited communication skills.
Impaired physical and motor development
Stereotypic and challenging behavior. Modifications:
Functionality, age appropriateness, making
choices, communication skills, prioritize.
Positive behavioral support.
Small group instruction. Prevalance: range from 0.1% to 1% of the population Medications: No way to cure this disability when the child is born with it; there are treatments to save what little sensory perception remains. This could include but is not limited to implants and hearing aids. Characteristics:
Fine motor delays
Gross motor delays
Social delays/ difficulties. Modifications:
Correctly evaluate and assess
each child individually.
Set both short term and long-term goals.
Utilize individualized instruction. The prevalence of various DD spanning 1997–2008 was 13.87%
Prevalence has increased 17.1%—roughly 1.8 million more children with DDs in 2006–2008 than before Medications: no specific medications but there are a variety
of treatments and therapies that differ depending on
the specific type of delay. Definition: A hearing impairment
that is so severe that the child is
hindered from processing linguistic
information through hearing Modifications:
Hearing aids/ cochlear implants
Speech to Text.
Oral/ aural approaches
(learning to use what hearing they have).
Total communication (variety of communicative methods). Cued speech. Fingerspelling.
American Sign Language (ASL) Bi-lingual, bi-cultural approach. Prevalance:
Students with hearing loss represent about 1.2% of all school- age students receiving special education. Orthopedic Impairments Characteristics:
An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.
A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
oInappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.
School wide systems of positive behavioral support (classroom to classroom)
Positive classroom management
Carrot method Vs. Stick
Peer mediation and support
Support and confrontation
Group reward Prevalence:
Estimates vary tremendously – Credible sources indicate that 3% to 10 % have emotional and behavioral disorders that warrant intervention.
Far fewer children with emotional or behavioral disorders are receiving special education than the most conservative prevalence estimates.
Medications and side affects:
Side effects can range from vary mild to severe. They include: Dry mouth, Constipation, Blurry vision, Urinary retention, Dizziness, Drowsiness.
Mood stabilizers such as lithium.
Limited memory function
Slow learning rate
Limited Generalization or
Maintenence of New skills
Lack of motivation Modifications: Functional Curriculum, Self Determination, Task Analysis, Engagement,
Systematic Feedback, Transfer of Stimulus Control, Generalization &
Maintenance, Frequent and Direct Assessment
Many experts cite that of roughly 1% of the total population
during the 2005-2006 school year, approximately 0.8% of the total
school enrollment receiving special education services was under
the disability category of mental retardation. Coexisting Conditions
Higher risk of Alzheimer's for those with Down's Syndrome
Pervasive Development Disorder
Stereotypic Movement Disorder
ADD/ADHD Characterizations: Slow acquisition rates for learning new skills
Poor generalization and maintenance of newly learned skills
Limited communication skills
Impaired physical and motor development
Deficits in self-help skills
Infrequent constructive behavior & interaction
Stereotypic and challenging behavior Modifications: Teaching: Functionality, Age-appropriateness, making choices, communication skills, prioritize
Mand-prompt and Positive behavior support
Neighborhood Theory Prevalence:
Estimates of the prevalence of severe disabilites range from 0.1% to 1% of the population
Together children served under IDEA disability categores of Deaf-Blindness,
Traumatic Brain Injury, and Multiple Disabilities are about 3% Medications and Side Affects:
Risperdal is used to treat people with some or all of the following:
--- bipolar disorder, autism, and developmental delay Definition: A severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects the child's educational performance.
The term includes impairments caused by congenital anomaly (e.g. clubfoot, absence of some
members, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g. cerebrall palsy, amputations, and
fractures or burns that cause contractures). Characteristics:
Many varied characteristics make
it hard to impossible to define a concrete
list. Knowing the underlying cause of a
student's disability provides limited guidance
at best when planning the needed/related
services and special education plans. Modifications * Cooperative Teaching/Teaming ^ Therapists (PT's or OT''s)
^ Speech Language
^ Recreation * Adaptive environment
* Assistive Technology
^ Animal assistance Prevalence
In 2005-2006 10.3% of all school-age children who received special
education services were served under the disability categories of ortho-
pedic impairments and other health impairments. Coexisting Conditions: Spina Bifida
Musculoskeletal disorders Specific Learning Disabilities
* General-A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in the understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.
* Disorders not included- does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
Def: Having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment that—
oI.) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle cell anemia; and
oII.) adversely affects the child's educational performance.
Other Health Impairments:
Many varied characteristics make it hard to impossible to define a concrete list. Knowing the underlying cause of a student’s disability provides limited guidance at best when planning the needed/related services and special education plans.
*Therapists (PT’s or OT’s)
*Guide Dogs or Care Companions
-- In 2005-2006 10.3% of all school-age children who received special education services were served under the disability categories of orthopedic impairments and other health impairments.
Prevalence -- Figure does not include all children due to other categorical label or not needing special education
--Language Problems (Written and Spoken)
--Social Skill Deficits
--Attention and Hyperactivity disorders
--Important-defining characteristic is the presence of specific and significant achievement deficits.
--Graphic Organizers (Word Wall, Timelines)
--Note Taking Strategies (Cornell Notes)
--Guided Notes (Lecture Outlines)
--Mnemonics (Memory Devices: H.O.M.E.S-the Great Lakes)
--Cooperative Teaching with Special Ed Instructor
--Learning disabilities make up the largest category in special education—representing roughly ½ of all children that receive special education.
* Stimulants (used for attention-deficit disorder and/or hyperactivity)
* Possible side effects: appetite suppression, insomnia, dysphoric reaction, growth delay, headaches, stomachaches, jitteriness, and social withdrawal.
* Antidepressants (used for depression, acute school refusal, and attention disorders)
* Possible side effects: dose-related dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, sedation, cardiac toxicity, seizures
* Neuroinhibitors (used for attention disorders and behavioral problems)
* Possible side effects: excessive tiredness, insomnia, increase in heart rate and blood pressure, sexual side effects, painful urination, suicide ideation
* Neuroleptics (used for treating overt psychosis, unmanageable destructive behavior, severe aggression, and Tourette's syndrome)
* Possible side effects: sedation, dystonic reactions
Medications & Side Effects: Prevelance: Speech/ Language Impairments: A communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment,
or voice impairment, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Definition:
-Distortions (Sounds: zleep vs. sleep)
-Substitutions ( doze vs. those)
-Omissions (cool vs. school)
-Additions (hamber vs. hammer)
-SLP (Speech Language Pathologist)
(Word Wall -- Word Association
-About 2.5% of school-age children receive special education for speech and language impairments, the second largest disability category under IDEA.
-Nearly twice as many boys as girls have speech impairments.
-Children with articulation and spoken language problems represent the largest category of speech-language impairments.
Coexisting conditions: Bi-polar Disorder (rare)
Traumatic Brain Injury: An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention,,etc. does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or induced by birth trauma
-Slow acquisition rates for learning new skills
-Poor Generalization and maintenance of newly learned skills
-Limited Communication Skills
-Impaired physical and motor development
-Deficits in self-help skills
-Infrequent constructive behavior and interaction
-Stereotypic and challenging behavior
Characteristics: Definition: About 1.5 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury each year.
-Two groups at the highest risk are birth to 4 year olds and 15 to 19 year olds
-Most often a result of a motor vehicle accident.
-One of the smallest categories of Special Education.
Prevalence: Teaching: Functionality, Age-Appropriateness, Making choices, Communication Skills, Prioritize
-Positive Behavioral Support
Community Learning as a unified whole
Modifications: Co-Existing Conditions: Similar to that of developmental delay Characteristics: Modifications: Visual Impairment including Blindness: DEF: An impairment in vision that, even with correction adversely affects the child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness -Lacking ability to connect Language and cognition
-Motor Development and Mobility
-Social Adjustment and Interaction (Feelings of isolation)
Characteristics: Modifications: -Braille Technological aids
-Tactile Aids and Manipulations
Tangible Objects (Tens Blocks and Scales)
Reading print and transferring to Braille
-Optical Devices-functional vision (glasses)
Prevalence: Visual impairment is a low-incidence disability affecting fewer then 2 of every 1,000 children in the school age population. About half of all students with visual impairments have additional disabilities. Gifted and Talented Def: “Gifted and talented children” means those persons between the ages of five and twenty-one whose abilities, talents, and potential for accomplishment are so exceptional or developmentally advanced that they require special provisions to meet their educational needs. S O U R C E S: Definition for Gifted and Talented:
http://www.hubbardisd.com/webpages/gt/index.cfm?subpage=636918 Modifications: acceleration/enrichment of content
provide alternate assignments
consult higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy
curriculum compacting education.com Characteristics: extraordinary in intellectual ability, specialized academic areas, music, or the arts; capable of high performance, exceptional production, or exceptional learning behavior Prevalence: Many reports indicate that 3% to 5%
of the population is gifted and talented, but actual
figures might be much higher.
"Individuals with Disabilities Education Act"
Enacted by by Congress in 1975 requiring public schools to provide equal access to education for all children including those with physical and/or mental disabilities.
PL 94-142 Extended services for infants and young children with disabilities/at risk as well as their families.
Public Law 99-457 was created to make public education free and appropriate to children. offer interdisciplinary educational services to disabled toddlers, infants, and their families to receive financial grants.
Establishes state-level inter agency councils on early intervention.
Institutes individualized family service plans (IFSPs)
Provides case management services to families
Requires multidisciplinary, coordinated inter agency model of service delivery.
“The Preschool Law” PL 99-457 Federal U.S. law determines how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities. IDEA’s legislation is also known as the “spending clause” its provisions involve states that accept federal funding under the IDEA. It addresses the educational needs of children with disabilities from birth to age 18 or 21. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) PL 101-476 PL 105-17 students with disabilities included in state or district wide assessment programs or provided options for alternative assessments Require IEPs to state how the student with disabilities will be involved in the general education program and track student’s progress
Transition planning begins at age 14
Regular educators involved in IEP team.
Assistive technology needs of the student must be considered by the IEP team.
Orientation and mobility services for children with visual impairments were added to the definition of related services.
mediation services by the state to help solve related disputes
students with disabilities included in state or district wide assessment programs or provided options for alternative assessments
The law requires states to show Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in raising student achievement. The participation of students with disabilities in large-scale statewide or district wide testing is required
This law involves AYP or Adequate Yearly Progress of schools to raise student performance, including children with disabilities. The accountability is based off of IEPs for students with disabilities who have been previously omitted from standardized testing and assessment. IDEA specifically addresses students with disabilities. This builds on IDEA law, which requires the students with disabilities to be involved in state and district-wide assessments.
NCLB -Relating to SpEd Allows federal funding to help states provide special education opportunities for students with various disabilities
IDEIA requires states to provide a free appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment in order to provide this funding. Also mandates due process to see that all students receive FAPE. This act responded to the increased need to educate children with disabilities.
Builds off of law 101-476
Special education and related services should be designed to meet the unique learning needs of eligible children with disabilities, preschool through age 21.
Students with disabilities should be prepared for further education, employment and independent living.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 -Relating to SpEd Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 guarantees certain rights to people with disabilities. Known as the first civil-rights law for people with disabilities. Opened door to 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act.
Ensures that students with disabilities are not excluded from programs or activities that benefit from Federal funding.
The Section 504 provides free and appropriate public education to students with a disability within the school district who qualify. Meets the needs of students with disabilities as well as students without disabilities and maintains special education services and related services
Gargiulo, Richard M. (2012). Special Education in Contemporary Society: An Introduction to Exceptionality, Fourth Edition http://www.projectidealonline.org http://nichcy.org/disability/specific