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Sephardic Jews from 1400-1700

The Spanish Expulsion and Where Jews Went Afterwards
by

Shifra Chelst

on 15 December 2017

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Transcript of Sephardic Jews from 1400-1700

The Spanish Expulsion
1391
1492
1654
anti-Jewish riots in Spain
King Ferdinand, Queen Isabella expel all Jews from Spain
1481
Spanish Inquisition
Jews expelled from Portugal
Dutch expelled from Recife
Conversos

Crypto-Jews

Marranos

New Christians
http://www.sephardicstudies.org/decree.html
1581
Jews move to Dutch colony of Recife, Brazil
Alhambra Decree / Edict of Expulsion:
La Rosa Enflorese : a Ladino song
Lost Jews in Spain reconnect to their Jewish roots after 600 years.
http://www.haaretz.com/jewish-world/jewish-world-features/hidden-for-generations-a-community-of-spanish-jews-explores-its-roots.premium-1.472206
(the converso benching)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-5cZIEEhTIo
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bendigamos
Rabbi Yitzchak Luria moves to Tzfat
1569
Kabbalat Shabbat
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
Northern Africa
Italy
Ottoman Empire
Jews move to:
Ghetto
Sephardic Synagogue
mix of Sephardi & Ashkenazi
Holland / Netherlands
(Amsterdam)
Rembrandt
Portuguese Synagogue
Rabbi Menashe
ben Israel
1604-1657
Jewish Quarter
Amsterdam -1593
Jews joined "Mizrahi" (Eastern) Jews
dhimmi
protected minority religion
paid taxes
were allowed to live in peace
walls of Jerusalem
Gracia Mendes Nasi
1510-1569
1497
in Spain
(and Portugal)

after the
expulsion

Conversos in Portugal
To the New World
Recife Synagogue
First Jews arrive in New Amsterdam
Kabbalists
Ideas

"Sefirot"
"nitzotzot" (sparks)
Shechina
"Or Ein Sof / "tzimtzum"
(non-Jewish painter)
An interesting modern article...
Bendigamos
religious freedom
Dome of the Rock
Thinking Question -
Why would someone do something like this for no personal gain and taking great personal risk?
First Jewish communities in North America
1. New Amsterdam
2. Newport, Rl
3. Philadephia, PA
4. Charleston, SC
5. Savannah, GA
**All of these were Spanish & Portuguese Jews looking for new homes in places with religious tolerance
Don Isaac Abarbanel
Reconquista
1300s Barcelona Haggadah
Golden Age of Spain
Abraham Ibn Ezra
August 3,
1089-1164
Toledo - Ibn Shoshan / Santa Maria la Blanca
Under Islam's rules, separate legal courts for
Muslim sharia
Christian Canon law
Jewish halakha law
Morocco
Essaouira
Jews= 40%
Jewish quarter (mellah)
synagogues and cemeteries
Caravan Trade and Business with Europe
Traditions
henna
Tunes and
Prayers
mimouna
clothing
Shema
Shir HaShirim
how to find a synagogue
In North America
Rabbi Abraham Saba
1440-1508
Torah commentary
December 24, 1496

King Manuel I of Portugal ordered:
1. all Jews expelled from Portugal
Castille
Oporto
Fez
Italy
https://yaelleazagury.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/traje_de_berberisca.pdf
http://sefarad.org/sefarad/sefarad.php/id/29/

I am a Marrano: article by Anne Cardoza
The Last Marranos
Hidden Judaica inside a teapot
(modern re-creation)
https://playingintheworldgame.wordpress.com/2013/04/17/the-hidden-synagogue/

welcomed by Kings of Naples

(Ferrante I & Alfonso II)
Pope Alexander VI (Borgia)
Jews were "permitted to lead their life, free from interference from Christians, to continue in their own rites, to gain wealth, and to enjoy many other privileges."
ignored the Council of Basel's decisions
"Jews can not be physicians to Christians"
Venice
1533
Jews expelled from Naples
Duke Ercole II
3 famous family members:
Abraham Usque- founded a large printing business
Samuel Usque- historian
Solomon Usque- merchant of Venice & Ancona, and a poet - translated the poems of Petrarch into Spanish
Ashkenazic Synagogue
built 1541
synagogue
mellah
Tzur Mishelo: a Shabbat zemer
Using Music to React to What Happened to Them
start at 1:35
ruled (1520-1566)
Suleiman takes land in Persia, conquers Hungary, expands his empire
built in 1180 by Yosef ben Meir ben Shoshan, son of a finance minister to King Alfonso VII of Castille
How would you decide where to go?
What are you looking for in a new home?
Rome
Abarbanel given a place at court
but later...
1555
Cum Nimis Absurdum
by Pope Paul IV
1553: Inquisition Burns the Talmud
memorial plaque on the street where they burned it
The Kabbalists
Rabbi Yitzchak Luria - the "Ari"


Rabbi Yosef Karo - the Beit Yosef
Rabbi Moshe Alshich
-Torah commentator
1581
independance from Spain
Baruch Spinoza
1632-1677
Europe in 1500
Europe in 2000
Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon
"Maimonides" "Rambam"
1135-1204
Other Famous Jews of the Golden Age
Rabbi Yehuda Halevi
1075-1141
Shmuel HaNagid (ibn Naghrillah)
993-1056
Jews welcomed into Portugal
1492
But actually...
2. Jewish children to become Christians
3. all Hebrew books burned
Keeping Judaism Secretly
Portuguese Inquisition
1536
Lisbon Massacre
1506
King John III
plague blamed on conversos
Portuguese Inquisition
lasted until 1794
included colonies in South America and India
Also Included:
censoring books
witchcraft
bigamy
Where?
(Pope Matin V, 1434)
The Pope
1431-1503
Ghettos
Rome
Venice
Bomberg
Usque Family
Soncino Family
Don Isaac Abarbanel
1437–1508
commentary on Daniel, printed in 1511
Abarbanel
Mishna w/ Rambam's commentary
printed by Joshua Solomon Soncino
Naples, May 1492
printed by Daniel Bomberg
Venice, 1525

Guttenberg Bible
1455
1st printed Gemara Brachot
Printed by Nathan Soncino, 1484
Famous Printers
Full transcript