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Sephardic Jews from 1400-1700

The Spanish Expulsion and Where Jews Went Afterwards
by

Shifra Chelst

on 15 October 2018

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Transcript of Sephardic Jews from 1400-1700

The Spanish Expulsion
1391
1492
1654
anti-Jewish riots in Spain
King Ferdinand, Queen Isabella expel all Jews from Spain
1481
Spanish Inquisition
Jews expelled from Portugal
Dutch expelled from Recife
Conversos

Crypto-Jews

Marranos

New Christians
http://www.sephardicstudies.org/decree.html
1581
Jews move to Dutch colony of Recife, Brazil
Alhambra Decree / Edict of Expulsion:
La Rosa Enflorese : a Ladino song
Lost Jews in Spain reconnect to their Jewish roots after 600 years.
http://www.haaretz.com/jewish-world/jewish-world-features/hidden-for-generations-a-community-of-spanish-jews-explores-its-roots.premium-1.472206
(the converso benching)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-5cZIEEhTIo
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bendigamos
Rabbi Yitzchak Luria moves to Tzfat
1569
Kabbalat Shabbat
Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
Northern Africa
Italy
Ottoman Empire
Jews move to:
Sephardic Synagogue
mix of Sephardi & Ashkenazi
Holland / Netherlands
(Amsterdam)

Rembrandt
Portuguese Synagogue
Rabbi Menashe
ben Israel
1604-1657
Jewish Quarter
Amsterdam -1593
Jews joined "Mizrahi" (Eastern) Jews
dhimmi
protected minority religion
paid jizya taxes
were allowed to live in peace
walls of Jerusalem
Gracia Mendes Nasi
1510-1569
1497
in Spain
(and Portugal)

after the
expulsion

Conversos in Portugal
The New World
Recife Synagogue
New Amsterdam
Kabbalists
Ideas

"Sefirot"
"nitzotzot" (sparks)
Shechina
"Or Ein Sof / "tzimtzum"
(non-Jewish painter)
An interesting modern article...
Bendigamos
religious freedom
Dome of the Rock
Thinking Question -
Why would someone do something like this for no personal gain and taking great personal risk?
Don Isaac Abarbanel
Reconquista
1300s Barcelona Haggadah
Golden Age of Spain
Abraham Ibn Ezra
August 3,
1089-1164
Toledo - Ibn Shoshan / Santa Maria la Blanca
Morocco
Essaouira
Jews= 40%
Jewish quarter (mellah)
synagogues and cemeteries
Caravan Trade and Business with Europe
Mizrahi Customs and Traditions
henna
Tunes and
Prayers
mimouna
clothing
Shema
Shir HaShirim
Ghetto
how to find a synagogue
North America
Rabbi Abraham Saba
1440-1508
Torah commentary
December 24, 1496

King Manuel I of Portugal ordered:
1. all Jews expelled from Portugal
Castille
Oporto
Fez
Italy
https://yaelleazagury.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/traje_de_berberisca.pdf
http://sefarad.org/sefarad/sefarad.php/id/29/

I am a Marrano: article by Anne Cardoza
The Last Marranos
Hidden Judaica inside a teapot
(modern re-creation)
https://playingintheworldgame.wordpress.com/2013/04/17/the-hidden-synagogue/

welcomed by Kings of Naples

(Ferrante I & Alfonso II)
Pope Alexander VI (Borgia)
Jews were "permitted to lead their life, free from interference from Christians, to continue in their own rites, to gain wealth, and to enjoy many other privileges."
ignored the Council of Basel's decisions
Venice
1533
Jews expelled from Naples
Abraham Usque - Printer
Samuel Usque - Author
Ashkenazic Synagogue
built 1541
synagogue
mellah
Tzur Mishelo: a Shabbat zemer
Using Music to React to What Happened to Them
start at 1:35
ruled (1520-1566)
Suleiman takes land in Persia, conquers Hungary, expands his empire
built in 1180 by Yosef ben Meir ben Shoshan, son of a finance minister to King Alfonso VII of Castille
How would you decide where to go?
What are you looking for in a new home?
Abarbanel given a place at court
but later in ...
1555
Cum Nimis Absurdum
Pope Paul IV
1553: Burning the Gemara
memorial plaque on the street where they burned it
The Kabbalists
Rabbi Yitzchak Luria
- the "Ari"
1534-1572
Rabbi Yosef Karo the Beit Yosef
1488-1575
Rabbi Moshe Alshich
-Torah commentator
1508-1593
1581
independance from Spain
Baruch Spinoza
1632-1677
Europe in 1500
Europe in 2000
Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon
"Maimonides" "Rambam"
1135-1204
Other Famous Jews of the Golden Age
Rabbi Yehuda Halevi
1075-1141
Shmuel HaNagid (ibn Naghrillah)
993-1056
Jews welcomed into Portugal
1492
But actually...
2. Jewish children to become Christians
3. all Hebrew books burned
Keeping Judaism Secretly
Portuguese Inquisition
1536
Lisbon Massacre
1506
King John III
plague blamed on conversos
Portuguese Inquisition
lasted until 1794
included colonies in South America and India
Also Included:
censoring books
witchcraft
bigamy
Where?
(Pope Matin V, 1434)
The Pope
1431-1503
Ghettos
Bomberg
Usque Family
Soncino Family
Don Isaac Abarbanel
1437–1508
commentary on Daniel, printed in 1511
Abarbanel
Mishna w/ Rambam's commentary
printed by Joshua Solomon Soncino
Naples, May 1492
printed by Daniel Bomberg
Venice, 1525

Guttenberg Bible
1455
1st printed Gemara Brachot
Printed by Nathan Soncino, 1484
Famous Printers
1516
escaped Portugal in 1543
Ferrara Bible
1553
dedicated to:
Duke Ercole II
&
Gracia Mendes Nasi
1553
Solomon Usque - playwright, poet, translator, business agent, diplomat
(lived 1530-1596, son of Abraham)
1558 - wrote Spanish play "Esther"
1657 - translated Petrarch's poems
1595 - reported on Ottomans for
the British
"Since it is absurd and utterly inconvenient that the Jews, who through their own fault were condemned by God to eternal slavery..."
"Jew hat"
Venice Ghetto
Jobs: rag men, secondhand dealers, fish mongers, pawnbrokers...
Rome
1465 Moroccan revolt

in which Jews of Fez were massacred
Before the Sephardic Jews Arrived...
Abd al-Haqq II
appointed many Jews to high positions
Jews who stayed:
peddlers, shoemakers, jewelry makers
some went to Spain (then expelled again)
Shearith Israel - 1654
Newport, RI
Jeshuath Israel/Touro Synagogue - 1763
Philadelphia, PA
Mikvah Israel - 1740
Charleston, SC
Savannah, GA
Beth Elohim - 1749
Mickve Israel - 1735
each religion judged by their own courts
Safi
Jews' Loyalty to Portugal?!
Safi Jewish cemetery
Portuguese fort
South America
Recife
Haym Salomon
1740-1785
Rebecca Gratz
1781-1869
Isaac Touro
1738-1783
Spain->Portugal->
Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire, student of Rabbi Karo
"Many people who have listened to my lectures repeated parts or all of them in their own names. These offenses will be prevented by the publication of my own work".
moved to Tzfat 1535
Full transcript