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Key Concept 3.2. :Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions
Historical Period 3: c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450
New methods of taxation within the Byzantine Empire and Chinese Dynasties ( Sui, Tang, Song)
Tax revenues were raised from taxation of the village units, they represented the agricultural base of the empire.
Tax system and administration were so efficient that the empire survived more than a thousand years.
Emperor Wendi lowered taxes and established granaries to ensure a stable, cheap food supply.
Commerce in Luoyang develop the national economy, a series of policies, such as Juntian (equal division of fields) System and Zutiao (tax moderation) System, were carried out. This equally distributed the farmland and moderated the tax rates while increasing the fiscal revenue.
Tang Dynasty established the equal land distribution system but they also collected taxation from land owner which has further extended the wealth of the dynasty and its power
Tang emperors started a Chinese census for the first time and used what they learned to collect more taxes from the Chinese population.
Taxed imported goods from other countries
Taxes from the overseas trade became an important income source for the Song state treasure
Emergence of New Forms of Governance
Patriarchy in the Byzantine Empire and Chinese dynasties (Sui, Tang, and Song)
I. Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged.
II. Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers.
The Byzantine emperor was the patriarch of Constantinople, and the head of both church and state.
He was head of both the church and state
Justinian I took power in 527, was the first great ruler of the empire
Justinian reformed and codified Roman law
Built many monuments including Hagia Sophia or the Church of Holy Wisdom
Women were submissive to men.
Like other Patriarchal Societies, women in Sui Dynasty had least rights.
Under Sui leadership, Confucian civil service restarted along with its exam system
Tang emperors expanded Chinese territories
Tang emperors also expanded the Confucian bureaucracy and meritocracy system
Tang emperors started a Chinese census
They learned how to collect more taxes from the people
During the Tang Dynasty, women had more rights and privileges than women in the other dynasties at this period
Patriarchy intensified Confucianism
Upper-class women were to use 'foot-binding' method to prevent their foot to grow, lower-class women were unable to do so because of labor work.
Introduced to New Foods : Bananas in Africa
Bananas were introduced in 500
Banana cultivation in Central Africa shows evidence of contact with other countries, between Southern Asia and East Asia
Bananas increased the Bantu’s food supply which caused them to expand rapidly
That helped promote population growth
various Islamic States
decentralized government (feudalism) in Europe and Japan
Caliphs were successors to Muhammad when he died in 632 AD
existed because no one could decide who would take his role.
Islamic Caliphate was the leader of the Islamic Community who governed under the Shoria (set of Islamic Rules)
Caliphs were supposed to be Imams (men chosen by God)
first Caliph was Abu Bakr
Caliphate would go through dynasties such as the Umayyads, Abbasids, and the Ottoman dynasties which at one point all of these Empires claimed that they had the Caliphate
These Empires all collapsed because of corruption within the Caliphate
The third Caliph Uthman was thought to have ruled the most like a King, and controversy then occurred as to what the proper way to elect a Caliphate was
The Islamic Caliphate was in charge of everything in Islamic Society including the rights of minorities, the religious freedom people within the region, the treatment of Christians and Jews, as well as the economy.
Islamic Caliphate Cont.
The Delhi Sultanate is a prime example of an Islamic state on the outside of the Caliphate system
Sultanate is a place where the Sultan claims to rule the territory, but not the Islamic Faith
The Delhi Sultanate is actually 5 different kingdoms. They came into contact with some of India's greatest invaders (Mongols, Tamerlane, Mughals)
Expansion of State Systems in America
state systems expanded in scope and reach in the Americas
Networks of city-states flourished in the Maya region
at the end of this period, imperial systems were created by the Mexican (“Aztecs”) and Inca.
Map of the Aztecs
Map of the Incas
Technological and cultural transfer: Between Tang and Abbasid
Battle of Talas marked first interaction between Tang China and the Abbasids.
Battle of Talas did not mark the beginning of hostility towards each other.
The battle allowed the Tang's power to increase which granted them to acquire more troops to fight off the Abbasids
While the Tang was able to gain power, their influence was declining while the Abbasids
Trade routes were renegotiated.
Across The Mongol Empire
Trade was on the silk road
Mongols developed empire, the Silk Road fell under their control,
They allowed trade to come in and out of the region
The Mongol empire traded luxury goods
Were able to increase/expand trade and foreign contacts
Ruled most of China until 1368
Kept Chinese form of govt,
Were able to build a vast empire that stretch from China to Europe.
Map of The Mongol Empire
During the Crusades
Not many fights during 174 years,only had 24 fights.
Did not encourage trade between Christians and Muslims
However, the Crusades encouraged the development of the systems of taxation
Had a major impact on Europeans; Crusades increased in cultural horizons.
Spread of Christianity
Transferred large amounts of money and supplies for troops allowed europeans to develop banking and accounting techniques
Improved techniques of siege technology, tunneling and sapping
Cultural/technological enrichment from East diffused to the West.
Crusades had to borrow money to finance them, weaken power of nobility and strengthen merchant class/ independent cities .
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