Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Integumentary System

No description
by

Pamela Stephens

on 30 September 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Integumentary System

Congestion of blood in blood vessels

Burns

Embarrassment (blushing)

Fever

Hypertension (HBP)

Inflammation

Allergy
Skin Color -- Abnormal
Homeostatic Imbalances
Skin Color -- Normal
Polygenic Trait
Major Characteristics of Skin
Largest organ of the body
FYI -- The Dermis
FYI -- Appendages
Hair
Skin Lesions
Elevated
Integumentary System
Waterproof, stretchable, washable
Surface area up to
2.2 sq. m
.
(21 sq. ft.)

Approx.
20 lbs
in most adults (16% of total body wt)

Pliable, yet tough
One Square Inch of Skin Contains:
20
Blood Vessels

65
Hairs & Hair Muscles

78
Nerves

78
Sensors for Heat

13
Sensors for Cold

160
Sensors for Pressure
100
Sebaceous/Oil Glands

1300
Nerve Endings

19,500,000
Cells

0.5

Million
Cells Dying & Being Replaced
FYI -- The Epidermis
500
Sweat Glands
Dandruff
= dry skin shedding =
40

pounds
in lifetime
Everything you see on a human is dead!
Stratum corneum
—outermost layer (20-30 cells thick) of keratin-filled cells – this layer is dead
Layers of the skin include:
Stratum germinativum (basale & spinosum)
—innermost layer -- mostly stem cells -- continually reproduce -- new cells move toward the surface
3 Colors
Melanin
ranges in color from yellow to reddish-brown to black
everyone has the same # of melanocytes but make varying amounts of melanin
local accumulation – freckles and moles
Carotene
most commonly found in the palms or soles
Hemoglobin
yellow to orange pigment found in carrots
red blood gives a pinkish hue to fair skin

Phenotype
Black

Dark Brown

Brown

Light Brown

White
Key # Genotype 1
M1M1M2M2
2
M1M1M2m2
3
M1M1m2m2
4
M1m1m2m2
5
m1m1m2m2
Erythema (redness)
Pallor -- Blanching
Emotional stress

Anemia

Low blood pressure
Jaundice (yellow)
Liver disorder

Biliary disorder

Presence of bile in blood

Diseases involving destruction of red blood cells
Bronzing (metallic)
Addison’s disease (hypofunction of adrenal cortex)
Cyanosis (blue)
Insufficient oxygen in tissues
Chronic poisoning
Gray/Brown
Vitiligo
Acquired loss of epidermal melanocytes in certain areas
Albinism
Absence of pigment color
Bruises
Blood escapes and clots beneath skin

Hematoma

Vitamin C deficiency

Hemophilia
mask of pregnancy
Lines of cleavage (tension lines)
lie in the direction in which the skin stretches the least, perpendicular to the direction of the greatest stretch
incisions made parallel to these lines heal with much less scarring than those made perpendicular to them
surgeons use these to make incisions because they heal quicker
Striae (stretch marks)
caused by extreme stretching, which tears the dermis and causes formation of scars
Strawberry hemangioma

Port-wine stain

“Stork bite”
Birthmarks -- malformation of dermal blood vessels
Lanugo
– soft hair of fetus and premature newborns
Angora
– grows continuously – ex. scalp hair and facial hair of mature males
Root – embedded in the skin – shape determines whether hair is
straight
or
curly
Definitive

– grows to a certain length and then stops – most common type of hair – ex. eyelashes, eyebrows, pubic and axillary hair
Alopecia
– hair loss
Nails
Onycholysis
Loosening of the nail from the nail bed
Paronychia
Infected hangnail
Nail pitting due to
psoriasis
Normal variations in nail structure
Longitudinal ridges (light-skinned)

Pigmented bands (dark-skinned)
Glands
Sweat
approximately 2.5 million per person
sweat is 99% water plus salts & nitrogenous wastes
emotion-induced sweating – we have no control over this
Ceruminous gland
modified apocrine gland
produces cerumen (ear wax)
Mammary gland
modified apocrine gland
produces milk
Sebaceous
all over the body except for palms & soles
smooth & soften hair and skin; slows water loss during dry weather
Functions of the Skin
Protection
Against infection by microbes
Against ultraviolet rays from sun
Against harmful chemicals
Against cuts and tears
Physical barrier -- very few substances able to pass through skin
Lipid-soluble substances: oxygen, carbon dioxide, some vitamins
Oleoresins- poisons (poison ivy/oak/sumac)
Organic solvents- dry-cleaning fluid, paint thinner, acetone
Salts of heavy metals- lead, mercury, nickel, arsenic
Penetration enhancers- drug agents that help substances into the body
Skin grafts -- provide protection to areas damaged by burns, disease, trauma
Temperature Regulation
Sense Organ
Vitamin D Synthesis
without vitamin D, calcium cannot be absorbed from digestive tract
Excretion
of wastes through sweating
Papule
—small, firm
raised
lesion
Plaque
—large raised lesion
Vesicle
—small blister (a few mm in diameter)
Bulla
—large blister
Pustule
—pus-filled lesion
Crust
—scab
Wheal (hive)
—raised, firm lesion with a light center
Flat
Macule
—flat, discolored region
Depressed
Excoriation
—missing epidermis, as in a scratch wound
Ulcer
—crater
-
like lesion
Fissure
—deep crack or break
Frostbite
Local destruction of the skin resulting from freezing
Burns
First-degree
Skin Infections
Skin Cancer
Basal Cell -- most common
First-degree frostbite

Skin will appear
cyanotic (bluish)
and swollen

Second-degree frostbite

Vesicle
formation and
hyperemia
(engorgement with blood)
As the affected area is
warmed,
there will be further
swelling,
and the skin will
redden
and
blister

Third-degree frostbite

Severe
edema,
some
bleeding,
and
numbness
followed by intense throbbing
pain
and
necrosis
of the affected tissue
Gangrene
will follow if untreated
Ex. sunburn
2-3 days to heal
Second-degree
3-4 weeks to heal
Critical if more than 25% of the body is affected
Third-degree
Critical if more than 10% of the body is affected or if the face, hands, or feet have 3rd degree burns
Fourth-degree
Occurs as a result of high-voltage electrical burns or exposure to intense heat over time
Burn contracture
Most immediate threat --
dehydration/electrolyte imbalance
After 24 hours,
infection
becomes main threat
Impetigo
Highly contagious staphylococcal or streptococcal infection

Tinea
Fungal infection (mycosis) of the skin; several forms occur

Boils (furuncles & carbuncles)
Staphylococcal infection in hair follicles

Scabies
Parasitic infection

Seborrheic Dermatitis
Dandruff caused by a yeast infection combined with overproduction of sebum
Vascular and Inflammatory Skin Disorders
Decubitus ulcers (bedsores)
Develop when pressure slows down blood flow to local areas of the skin

Urticaria or hives
Red lesions caused by fluid loss from blood vessels
Allergy or emotional stress

Scleroderma
Disorder of vessels and connective tissue characterized by hardening of the skin
Two types – localized and systemic
Psoriasis
Chronic inflammatory condition accompanied by scaly plaques

Eczema
Common inflammatory condition characterized by papules, vesicles, and crusts
Not a disease itself but a symptom of an underlying condition
approximately
30%
of all white-skinned people get it
99%
curable if caught early
Squamous Cell -- 2nd most common
grows rapidly and metastasizes if not removed
Melanoma -- deadliest
5%
of skin cancers but rising fast
cause of up to
75%
of all skin cancer fatalities
100%
treatable if caught early
Kaposi Sarcoma
associated with
AIDS
and other immune deficiencies
may be caused by a virus
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Melanoma
ABCDE Rules for Melanoma
Evolution
--
progressive changes over time
Developmental Aspects of the Skin
Epidermis
develops from embryonic ectoderm;
dermis
and
hypodermis
develop from mesoderm
By the end of the

fourth

month of development the skin is fairly well-formed
Infancy/childhood
– the skin thickens and more subcutaneous fat is deposited
Adolescence

– skin and hair become oilier as sebaceous glands are activated
Skin reaches its optimal appearance when we reach our
20s
and
30s
; after that time the skin starts to show the effects of cumulative environmental exposures
As

old age

approaches, the rate of epidermal

cell replacement slows

and the

skin thins
,
becoming more prone to

bruising

and other types of injuries – the number of active

hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands

also declines
Old Age
Vit D
production declines up to
75%
Melanocyte
activity decreases in skin and hair
Glandular
activity declines -- less
oil
and
sweat
production
Blood supply
to dermis is reduced
Hair follicles
stop functioning or produce finer hair
Dermis thins and elastic fibers decrease in size --
wrinkling
and
sagging
Sex hormone levels decline -- changes in
hair
and
body fat
distribution cause men and women 90-100 to look alike
Skin
repairs
more slowly
Full transcript