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Input Processing in Second Language Acquisition
Transcript of Input Processing in Second Language Acquisition
Discussion of Results
Input processing is an
step in second language acquisition comprehension activities may be seen as an excellent way to begin learning the TL
More Results, More Discussion!
It is most effective when students get frequent exposure to language they already can process, allowing them to effectively acquire it.
What is Input Processing? What does it look like?
SLA- Second Language Acquisition
Less exposure to Processing Instruction (P.I) resulted in slower progress toward learning the target language.
VanPatten and Cadierno’s research found that by giving students’ specific instruction on linguistic features such as metalinguistic awareness through reading and listening activities, and practicing these acquired forms, it increased the chance that they would notice this feature, learn it and use it in their L2 production.
Rachel Mazza- Lihnakis
Megan Alyssa Venturino
Listening &Reading in L2
Proposal #2 Just listen and read
- #20: Processing instruction
- Vanpatten and Cadierno
- Effects of processing instruction on L2 instruction
Processing Instruction in Foreign Language Teaching
Learners with more exposure to target language made better progress.
Active listening and reading for meaning are arguably the most effective (and therefore important) teaching methods associated with input processing.
Does L1 influence how learners process input?
Well, first they have to notice any similarity to take advantage of it.
Sounds like the Competition Model
Learning sentence processing cues is a gradual process.
However, L2 learners do transfer L1 cue weights.
Introduction to Input Processing?
Interesting finding: input processing instruction improves both comprehension and production, traditional instruction improved only production
Does this possibly support Krashen's Monitor Model?
Learning versus Acquisition, an aquired competence versus a learned competence.
Il giocatollo guarda il bambino.
Lit. The toy watches the child.
An Italian speaker would use animacy, assuming that the child is watching the toy.
An English speaker would use word-order, assuming the toy is haunted and stalking the child...
The real take-away is that input-processing is NOT a theory of second language acquisition, but rather one of many processes involved in SLA.
Processing instruction is best seen as a first step for new learners or a support for more advanced students.
-Language acquisition takes place through listening and reading
-Comprehensible input is enough to understand the language
Making meaning of language by focusing on language
-CBI and reading activities
-Manipulation of input
-Increases attention to language form and meaning
In the subject’s classrooms during regular class time
University of Illinois, United States
Three second year university level Spanish classes at the University of Illinois in Spring 1991
All English L1 speakers
Program focused on developing L2 communicative skills
Word order and object pronoun instruction were not scheduled during the study
Each class was randomly assigned to a treatment group
No instruction (N); n = 17
Processing instruction (P); n = 17
Traditional instruction (T); n = 15
VanPatten and Cadierno wanted to discover the potential impact of attempting to change Spanish L2 learners’ processing of input containing non-SVO order.
For example: Lo llama Maria (Maria calls him)
Object pronoun - verb - subject
A pre-test and three post-tests, each consisting of interpretation and written production tasks were used before and after the different instruction methods were applied in order to judge their effects.
Interpretation task: Match each of the 15 sentences they heard with one of two pictures.
Written production task: Complete sentences according to visual cues
Traditional grammar teaching and oral practice (Group T)
Subjects were taught to process input sentences differently from what they were usually taught in their class (Group P)
All experimental instruction methods were taught by one of the researchers, not by their regular course instructor
Partly influenced by Krashen and on the natural growth of the field.
Chomsky – as means of pinpointing a role of explicit instruction.
Garrett – the importance of grammar.
Process Second Language Acquisition
Generally quite easy to understand.
The listener hears the input
Processing happens in the “developing system” -> interlanguage
Production of output
There are two main types of understanding. The first type is partial understanding. The TL input is not fully understood, but the learner is aware of it. The second type is complete understanding. It happens when the input is “realized”, understood and can be applied in different situations.
Two Principles of Processing in Second Language acquisition
Learners process Input for meaning before they process it for form."
The First Noun Principle. Learners tend to process the first noun or pronoun they encounter in a sentence as the subject/agent. "
Traditional Explicit Grammar Instruction in Foreign Language Teaching
-Explaining the grammar concepts to the students
-Students must produce the same form as they were shown through instruction
-This instruction focuses on the learner's output through the use of manipulation.
Processing Instruction in Foreign Language Teaching
-Input is modified ( different methods can be used in order to manipulate the information)
-The learner perceives the information differently
-Causes a change in internalized knowledge
Questionable method in relation to the alteration of the developing system.
There is an important link between input and instruction. This link has a major influence on the learner' success in Second Language acquisition.
The input processing has a significant effect on a learner's developing system.
Language form and meaning are important goals that are better attained when Input Processing is used in the Second Language learning environment.