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The Culture of United States

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Huda Zaidi

on 20 April 2015

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Transcript of The Culture of United States

Location:
North America, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the East and the Pacific Ocean in the West, Canada in the North and Mexico in the South

Capital:
Washington, DC

National Animal:
Eagle

National Flower:
The rose was designated the official flower and floral emblem of the United States of America in 1986.

Climate:
Mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the great plains west of the Mississippi River, and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest.

Population:
320,590,000 (March 2015 est.)

Independence Day:
July 4, 1776
Facts and Figures
Language
28 states have English as the official language.

According to the 2000 U.S. Census, more than 97% of Americans can speak English well, and for 81% it is the only language spoken at home.

Spanish has official status in the commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the state of New Mexico. According to the 2000 census, there are nearly 30 million native speakers of Spanish in the United States.

Indigenous languages of the United States include the Native American languages including Southern Quechua, Chamorro, Samoan


Four large dialect regions in the United States—the North, the Midland, the South, and the West

Several smaller dialect regions such as those of New York City and Boston.

A standard dialect called
"General American"
sometimes regionally associated with the vaguely-defined "Midwest".
• English (82.1%)

• Spanish (10.7%)

• Other Indo-European languages (3.8%): Hindi, Portuguese,Bengali, Russian, Punjabi, German, French, Marathi, and Urdu.

• Other Asian or Pacific Islander languages (2.7%): Chinese, Tibetan, Burmese, Tahitian, Sāmoan, Tongan, Māori and Hawaiian

• Other languages (0.7%)

Statistics
Dialects
Statistics
Literature
When Learning a Second Language
Means Losing the First
Lily Wong Fillmore
University of California, Berkeley (1991)
Immigrant and American Indian families were surveyed in this study to determine the extent to which family language patterns were affected by their children's early learning of English in preschool programs.
The examination of the data collected from families across the country suggested that as immigrant children learn English, the patterns of language use change in their homes, and the younger they are when they learn English, the greater the effect. The evidence suggested that these children are losing their primary languages as they learn English.
Thomas Attwood Digges' "Adventures of Alonso", (1775)
William Hill Brown's The Power of Sympathy (1791)
Susanna Rowson:
Charlotte Temple
(1794)
Washington Irving:
Rip Van Winkle
(1819) and
The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
(1820)
Edgar Allan Poe: generally considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre.
The Scarlet Letter (1850) by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900) by L. Frank Baumand
The Great Gatsby
(1925) by F. Scott Fitzgerald.
Little Women,
published in two volumes in 1868 and 1869, by Louisa May Alcott
The Old Man and the Sea
(1951) by Ernest Hemingway

First American Novels
Famous Novelists
Famous Novels
Daniel "Dan" Brown (June 22, 1964) American author of thriller fiction best known for the 2003 bestselling novel The Da Vinci Code.
Contemporary Novelists
Sidney Sheldon (1917 – 2007) was an American writer.
The first significant poet of the independent United States was William Cullen Bryant (1794–1878)

Trends
Landscape and traditions of their native country
Transcendentalism (1820s)
Surrealism (1920s)
Confessional poetry (1950s)
Black Mountain poets/ Projectivist poets (1970s)

Robert Pinsky was Poet Laureate of the United States for three terms.
Poetry
A Computational Analysis of Style, Affect, and Imagery in Contemporary Poetry
Justine Kao & Dan Jurafsky
Stanford University (2012)
Computational methods were used to compare the stylistic and content features employed by award winning poets and amateur poets. The elements of poetic craft such as diction, sound devices, emotive language, and imagery were examined.
Results showed that the most important indicator of high-quality poetry was the frequency of references to concrete objects. The result highlights the influence of Imagism in contemporary professional poetry, and suggests that concreteness may be one of the most appealing features of poetry to the modern aesthetic.
Word Use in the Poetry of Suicidal and Non-Suicidal Poets
Shanon Wiltsey Stirman & James Pennebaker
University of Pennsylvania (2001)
300 poems from early, middle and late periods of 9 suicidal and 9 non-suicidal poets were compared using computer text analysis program Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC)
Writings of Suicidal poets contained more words pertaining to individual self and fewer words pertaining to collective than did those of non-suicidal poets.
Theatre
Eugene O'Neill
father of American drama.
four-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize for drama
the only American playwright to win the Nobel Prize forliterature.
Dance
Ballet
hip hop dance and its derivative Rock and Roll
square dance
swing dance
Cha-cha-cha
Country/western dance
Jazz dance
Harlem Shake

Music
Music Genres
Jazz, blues, country,bluegrass, rock, rhythm and blues, ragtime, hip hop, barbershop, pop, experimental, techno,house, dance, boogaloo, salsa, and rock and roll.
Cinema
~ Hollywood is a district in the central region of Los Angeles, California.

~ The term was coined by H. J. Whitley, the "Father of Hollywood"

~ The name is a reference to the Toyon, a native plant with bright red winter berries.

Four main periods of Hollywood history:
the silent film era
classical Hollywood cinema
New Hollywood
the contemporary period

~ The first movie shot in Hollywood was
In Old California
, a silent movie filmed in 1910 directed by D. W. Griffith
Religion
According to the CIA (2007):
• Christian (80.2%)
• Protestant (51.3%)
• Roman Catholic (23.9%)
• Mormon (1.7%)
• Other Christian (1.6%)
• Unaffiliated (12.1%)
• None (4%)
• Other/Unspecified (3%)
• Jewish (1.7%)
• Buddhist (0.7%)
• Muslim (0.6%)


Are the Beautiful Good in Hollywood? An Investigation of the Beauty-and-Goodness Stereotype on Film
Stephen M. Smith, William D. McIntosh, Doris G. Bazzini
University of Georgia (1999)
Physically attractive individuals are often viewed more favorably than unattractive people on dimensions that are weakly related or unrelated to physical looks, such as intelligence, sociability, and morality. Our study investigated the role of U.S. films in this "beauty-and-goodness" stereotype.

In Study 1, we established that attractive characters were portrayed more favorably than unattractive characters on multiple dimensions (e.g., intelligence, friendliness) across a random sample from 5 decades of 100 top-grossing films. The link between beauty and positive characteristics was stable across time periods, character sex, and characters' centrality to the plot.
Study 2 established that exposure to highly stereotyped films can elicit stronger beauty-and-goodness stereotyping. Participants watching a highly biased film subsequently showed greater favoritism toward an attractive graduate school candidate (compared with ratings of an unattractive candidate) than participants viewing a less biased film.
This study examined how psychologists responded to patients believed to be most religiously diverse from them. 3,070 clinicians were presented with two vignettes which described patients with comparable symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, who differed on their religiosity. They rated each on measures of empathy and prognosis. Clinicians completed a scale that measures attitudes about Christian beliefs that range from conservative to liberal positions. Conservative religious attitudes in relation to Christian beliefs were associated with less cognitive and affective empathy and a poorer prognosis for the diverse patients. Given the opportunity to do so, clinicians’ motivation to control prejudice reactions did not moderate the effects of automatic negative responding.
Psychologist Bias in Implicit and Explicit Responding to Religiously Divergent Patients

Jennifer Ruff, Fielding Graduate University (2008)
Celebrations
Thanksgiving
Fourth Thursday of November in the United States
A family reunion with a large afternoon feast
Christmas
25th December
Birth of Jesus Christ
Easter
Day of resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead
On a Sunday between 22 March and 25 April inclusive, within about seven days after the astronomical full moon
Easter Eggs:
Eggs, actual or made of plastic, chocolate or candy, are decorated and then gifted or hunted.
Easter parades:
festive strolling processions,
Saint Patrick's Day
17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick
Public parades and festivals, céilidh, and the wearing of green attire
Halloween
Eve of 31 October
Remembering the dead, including saints (hallows), martyrs, and all the faithful departed believers.
Using "humor and ridicule to confront the power of death."
Independence Day
Fourth of July
Parades throughout the day and the shooting of fireworks at night
New Year's Day
Beginning of the Gregorian calendar year
Festivities include counting down to midnight (12:00 am) on the preceding night, New Year's Eve
Mardi Gras
Practice of the last night of eating richer, fatty foods before the ritual fasting of the Lenten season
Observed notably in New Orleans, St. Louis, Alabama as well as numerous other towns
An ape-like creature, large, hairy, bipedal humanoid
Believed to inhabit forests in the Pacific Northwest region of North America
Bigfoot
Champ
Lake monster living in Lake Champlain, a natural freshwater lake in North America
Over 300 reported sightings but no scientific evidence
The Jersey Devil
Inhabits the Pine Barrens of Southern New Jersey in the United States
Kangaroo-like creature with the face of a horse, the head of a dog, leathery bat-like wings, horns, small arms with clawed hands, cloven hooves and a forked tail
Reported to move quickly as to avoid human contact and emitting a "blood-curdling scream."
The White Lady
A young woman's ghost dressed in all white
Associated with some local legend of tragedy with the theme of losing or being betrayed by a husband or fiancé.
Spirit of a young woman who died suddenly on her way to be married, and who was buried in her wedding dress.
Said to be a harbinger of death
A mythical half moth half man
Described as a large humanoid with moth features on its face and large wings with fur covering its body
Found in West Virginia
Mothman
The Hodag is mythical beast with reptilian body and the horns of a bull
said to inhabit the forests of Northern Wisconsin
said to have a penchant for mischief
Hodag
Liberty Bell
Iconic symbol of American independence
Located in Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Casted in 1752
Rung to mark the reading of the Declaration of Independence on July 8, 1776
Distinctive large crack:
claimed to occur while ringing after the death of Chief Justice John Marshall in 1835.
Uncle Sam
Common national personification of the American government
Came into use during the War of 1812
According to legend, Samuel Wilson, a meat packer in New York, supplied rations for the soldiers and stamped the letters U.S. on the boxes, which stood for United States but was jokingly said to be the initials of Uncle Sam.
Statue of Liberty
Colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor

Designed by Frédéric Bartholdi

Dedicated on October 28, 1886

A gift to the United States from the people of France

A robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom, who bears a torch and a tablet upon which is inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776.

The statue is an icon of freedom
Cuisine
Hanson Gregory, an American, claimed to have invented the ring-shaped doughnut in 1847 aboard a lime-trading ship when he was only 16 years old.
Donut
According to Congresswoman Rosa DeLauro, the hamburger, a ground meat patty between two slices of bread, was first created in America in 1900 by Louis Lassen, owner of Louis' Lunch in New Haven, Connecticut.
Hamburger
According to Breene, Sophia (2013), the club sandwich was invented in an exclusive Saratoga Springs, New York gambling club in the late 19th century
The drink Pepsi was first introduced as "Brad's Drink" in New Bern, North Carolina, United States, in 1893 by Caleb Bradham, who made it at his drugstore where the drink was sold. It was renamed Pepsi Cola in 1898.
Pepsi
Club Sandwich
KFC (1930)
McDonalds (1940) in California
Pizza Hut (1958) in Kansas
Dunkin' Donuts (1950) in Massachusetts
Fast Food
Pizza
French Fries
Pie
Steak
Hot dog
Highly consumed food
Journal of American Medicine (JAMA) (2012)

More than one-third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese.

African Americans (47.8%) Hispanics (42.5%)
Caucasian (32.6%), and Asians (10.8%)

Among middle age adults, 40-59 years old (39.5%)
Among younger adults, age 20-39 (30.3%)
Adults over 60 or above (35.4%)
Obesity
Attitudes to Food and the Role of Food in Life in the U.S.A.,
Japan, Flemish Belgium and France: Possible Implications for
the Diet–Health Debate
ROZIN, FISCHLER, IMADA, SARUBIN & WRZESNIEWSKI
University of Pennsylvania, University of Michigan
& Hiroshima-Shudo University (1999)
276 subjects from US, 438 from Belgium, 373 from France and 194 from Japan were taken.

Generally, the group associating food most with health and least with pleasure is the Americans, and the group most food–pleasure-oriented and least food–health-oriented is the French but the American are the least likely to classify themselves as healthy eaters.
Clothing
Deerskin Shawl
Deerskin warshirt
Moccasin
Breechcloth
Leggings
Feather headdress
Legging boots
Native American Clothing
Western American Clothing
Frock coat
Cutway coat
Victorian coat/
Tailcoat
Sack suit
Civilian Great Coat
Gentleman's Cape
Dress shirt
Bow tie
Broadfall / Drop Front Pants
Long John Drawers
Vest
Corset
Bonnet
Hat
Ladies' cape
Dirndl
Traditional Women Clothing
Contemporary Men Clothing
Traditional Men Clothing
Jean miniskirt
Microskirt
Poodle skirt
A-line skirt
Pencil skirt
Contemporary Women Clothing
American Values
Robin Williams ( 1970 ) identified core American Values:

• Equal Opportunity
• Competition and Achievement
• Materialism
• Practicality and Efficiency
• Progress
• Science
• Democracy
• Freedom
• Individualism
• Privacy
• Patriotism
• Pride
• Personal Space
• Self-Help Concept
• Future Orientation
Universalism, Particularism and cultural self-awareness:
a comparison of American and Turkish university students
Donald Tompkins, Diane Galbraith & Patricia Tompkins
Koç University & Slippery Rock University (2006)
Universalism implies that correct behavior can be defined and always applies while particularism suggests that relationships are more important than abstract social codes. The participants included 130 American and 42 Turkish university students.
Turkish students were more universalistic than American students and they were more aware of the influence of their culture on their responses.
UNDERSTANDING ETHNICITY: THE RELATION AMONG ETHNIC IDENTITY,
COLLECTIVISM, AND INDIVIDUALISM IN AFRICAN AMERICANS AND
EUROPEAN AMERICANS
Ignacio David Acevedo
University of Kentucky (2003)
The sample included 50 European American females, 50 European American males, 44 African American females and 10 African American males with average age 20.51 years.
Findings suggested that African Americans are more collectivist than European Americans. There was no significant moderating effect of gender on collectivism differences between ethnic groups.
Anarcho-punk
Goth subculture
Heavy metal subculture
Naturism/Nudism
Hippie
Punk subculture
Fairy/ Queer subculture
YOUTH SUBCULTURES AND SUBVERSIVE IDENTITIES
Nikola Bozilovic (2010)
The common feature of all the subcultural identities is their subversiveness while it is symbolically represented through image, music and jargon of subcultural actors. The subcultural self of adolescents comprises a certain degree of symbolic aggression which serves to challenge authorities, to oppose regulations and to refute social conventions. That is why it is well-grounded to consider subcultural identities of the young as identities or resistance.
Ethnic Makeup
White American 72.4 %
African Americans 12.6 %
Asian American 4.8 %
Hispanic or Latino 16.4 %
Native Americans or Alaska Native 0.9 %
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 0.2 %
Perceived Racism and Mental Health Among Black American Adults: A Meta-Analytic Review
Pieterse, Todd, Carter & Neville
University of New York, DePaul University, University of Illinois (2011)
This meta-analysis systematically reviewed 66 studies (total sample size of 18,140 across studies), published between January 1996 and April 2011, on the associations between racism and mental health among Black Americans. A positive association between perceived racism and psychological distress was found.
(US Census 2010)
Wedding Dress
Funeral Dressing
The Influence of Clothing Fashion and Race on the Perceived Socio-Economic status and Person Perception of College Students
LAUREN A. MCDERMOTT & TERRY F. PETTIJOHN
Walden University & Coastal Carolina University (2011)
College students (N = 168), including Caucasian (84.3%), African
American (3.6%), Hispanic (6%), Asian American (4.3%) and “other” (1.8%) ethnicities, viewed photographs of an African American or Caucasian female model wearing grey sweatshirts with Kmart, Abercrombie & Fitch (AF), or no logo. As predicted, participants rated the Caucasian model more favorably than the African American model overall. Participants rated models wearing the (AF) sweatshirt highest in socioeconomic status while participants rated models wearing the Kmart sweatshirt lowest in socioeconomic status.
Exposure to Violent Media: The Effects of Songs With Violent Lyrics on
Aggressive Thoughts and Feelings
Craig A. Anderson, Nicholas L. Carnagey & Janie Eubanks
Iowa State University (2003)
Five experiments conducted on 29 female and 30 male students from a large Midwestern university examined effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and hostile feelings. Experiments demonstrated that college students who heard a violent song felt more hostile than those who heard a similar but nonviolent song.These effects replicated across songs and song types (e.g., rock, humorous, nonhumorous).
1773: First mental hospital in US i.e. Eastern State Hospital, Williamsburg, Virginia

Around 1875: William James
~The first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States
~"Father of American psychology"

1883: G. Stanley Hall opened the first American research laboratory devoted to experimental psychology

1887: Hall founded the
American Journal of Psychology

1892: G. Stanley Hall invited about 30 psychologists and philosophers to a meeting at Clark with the purpose of founding American Psychological Association (APA)

1952: DSM
Psychology in America
Culture and Cause: American and Chinese Attributions
for Social and Physical Events
Michael W. Morris & Kaiping Peng (1994)
122 Chinese and 117 American subjects participated.
The study of Chinese and American participants, English- and Chinese-language newspapers as well as Chinese and American survey respondents showed that Americans and Chinese differ in their causal perceptions of social events with American attributions being more dispositional and Chinese being more situational in nature.
American and Egyptian Children’s Understanding
of Gender and Expertise
Christine K. Shenouda & Judith H. Danovitch
Michigan State University (2013)
Experiments explored how American (n=102) and Egyptian (n=73) preschoolers’ inferences about expertise are affected by an expert’s gender and occupation. Children viewed a nurse and a car mechanic in a gender stereotypical (female nurse, male mechanic) or counterstereotypical (female mechanic, male nurse) presentation and indicated who would know more about profession-related information and gender-stereotypical activities. American children inferred expert knowledge primarily based on the expert’s profession, regardless of gender. Egyptian children also made correct attributions about professional expertise, but they were more likely to be influenced by an expert’s gender than their American counterparts. Additionally, both American and Egyptian children were less likely to attribute stereotypical male knowledge to a male in a counterstereotypical profession.
Lovesongs in the United States and China
Fred Rothbaum & Bill Yuk-Piu Tsang
Tufts University & Harvard University (1998)
A total of 21 Mainland China, 21 Hong Kong and 38 US popular lovesongs were selected from a period of 1987 to 1993.
Love, in Chinese songs, was depicted as being more embedded in nature than in US songs. The Chinese songs convey more negative expectations about the relationship and more suffering than the US songs. Love was not depicted as more focused on intense desires in US song than in China.
Honor Bound: The Cultural Construction of Honor in Turkey and the Northern United States
Uskul, Cross, Sunbay, Gercek-Swing and Ataca
University of Essex, Iowa State University, University of Southampton & Bogazici University, Turkey (2012)
81 Turkish and 76 American subjects
In honor-attacking situations, situations generated by American participants focused on the individual more than did the situations generated by Turkish participants, whereas situations generated by Turkish participants focused on the target person’s close others more than did the situations generated by American participants
The sample consisted of 109 Chinese students, 177 Japanese students and 191 American students.
The two products presented were a textbook for a college course and a meal cooked by a friend.
Novelty referred to that the product was new or different in some way. Novelty was found to be important across the three countries for evaluations of creativity.
Appropriateness, here demonstrated by the level of functionality of the product, was more important to Americans and Japanese and less important to Chinese
IMPLICIT THEORIES OF CREATIVITY ACROSS CULTURES
Novelty and Appropriateness in Two Product Domains
SUSANNAH B. F. PALETZ & KAIPING PENG
University of California, Berkeley (2008)
Instrumental lying by parents in the US and China
Gail D. Heymana, Anna S. Hsua, Genyue Fub & Kang Leeac (2012)
The practice of lying to one's children to encourage behavioral compliance was investigated among parents in the US (N = 114) and China (N = 85). The vast majority of parents (84% in the US and 98% in China) reported having lied to their children for this purpose. Within each country, the practice most frequently took the form of falsely threatening to leave a child alone in public if he or she refused to follow the parent. A larger proportion of the parents in China reported that they employed instrumental lie-telling to promote behavioral compliance, and a larger proportion approved of this practice, as compared to the parents in the US. This difference was not seen on measures relating to the practice of lying to promote positive feelings, or on measures relating to statements about fantasy characters such as the tooth fairy.
171 Japanese and 246 American subjects were taken.
People use control strategies to improve their physical as well as interpersonal situations. Japanese, compared with North Americans, are more oriented toward secondary control (changing oneself) than primary control (changing one’s circumstances).
Japanese Control Strategies Regulated by Urgency and Interpersonal Harmony Evidence Based on Extended Conceptual Framework
Takafumi Sawaumi, Susumu Yamaguchi, Joonha Park & Angela R. Robinson
The University of Tokyo, Japan (2015)
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