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History of Nursing Theory 1980s
Transcript of History of Nursing Theory 1980s
Indian River State College
What was going on in the 80s?
For many people, the symbol of the decade
was the "yuppie": a baby boomer with a college
education, well-paying job, and expensive taste.
MTV was launched
Michael Jackson's album "Thriller" became the best selling album of all time
Madonna and Whitney Houston were the top female artists of the decade.
Just to name a few, some popular movies included
Back to the Future
The Breakfast Club
Many different styles were
popular including parachute
pants and big hair.
Activities of leisure
Ronald Reagan is president
Mount St. Helen erupts
John Lennon assassinated
Sandra Day O'Connor appointed first woman to U.S. Supreme Court
New plague identified as AIDS
Personal computers introduced by IBM
Vietnam war memorial opened in Washington, DC
President Reagan announces defense plan called Star Wars
Sally Ride becomes first american woman in space
PG-13 movie rating created
Famine in Ethiopia
Terrorists hijack TWA flight 847
Wreck of the Titanic found
Space shuttle Challenger explodes
U.S. bombs Libya
DNA first used to convict criminals
New York stock exchange suffers huge drop on "Black Monday"
Pan Am flight 103 is bombed
Students massacred in China's Tiananmen Square
Berlin Wall falls
The 1980s was an era of tremendous population growth around the world.
July 11, 1987 is the day the world population reached 5 billion.
Recession marked the early '80s and unemployment rose
1983 - conditions were improving
1984 - economy rebounded
1982-1987 economy created more than 13 million new jobs
A large percentage of growth was based on deficit spending. National debt nearly tripled.
Stock market crashed in late 1987
Gas prices were anywhere between $1.03 to $1.27 a gallon throughout the decade.
Gender roles in society
1985 - 9% of enlisted personnel in the armed forces were women
1986 - over half of college graduates were women
Many women continued to assume roles as operators and secretaries
The "new man" rose to prominence in the 80s, happy to help with household chores. Described as caring, sensitive, and non-aggressive.
So, what about nursing theories?
The McGill Model
Let's talk about ...
Born in Sutton, Nebraska
Received degrees from Benedictine College, Catholic University of America and the University of Washington
Worked in a child guidance home
Discovered recurrent behavioral patterns were related to cultural basis
Lack of care & cultural knowledge were the missing links in patient care
This was the beginning of transcultural nursing
Madeleine Leininger was an inspiration for nurses everywhere. She was born in Sutton, Nebraska but received her diploma in nursing from St. Anthony's School of Nursing in Denver, Colorado. In 1950, she received her B.S. from Benedictine College in Atchison, Kansas, and in 1954, earned her M.S. in psychiatric and mental health nursing from the Catholic university of America in Washington DC She later was awarded a PhD in cultural and social anthropology from the University of Washington, Seattle (Tomey and Alligood, 2001). During the 1950s, Madeleine Leininger was working in a child guidance home. She identified that a lack of care and cultural knowledge was the missing link to the understanding of the variations needed to assist compliance, healing, and wellness in patient care. This was the beginning of transcultural nursing.
Transcultural nursing contributes to the nurse-client relationship
Goal = provide culturally holistic care to all patients
Core measures are in sync with cultural needs, beliefs, values and practices
Culturally congruent care = our main goal
Our patients will benefit
Transcultural Nursing Theory
Madeleine states that transcultural nursing contributes to the cultural dynamics that influence the nurse-client relationship. Since Madeleine's ideas focus on the cultural aspect of nursing, she devised a specific theory that was needed to study this kind of nursing care. Madeleine developed the theory of diverse and universal cultural care with one goal in mind: to provide culturally holistic care to all patients. This theory provides core measures that are in sync with an individual or group's cultural needs, beliefs, values and practices. She called this culturally congruent care, or care that is sensitive to one's culture. Today, one of our main goals as nurses is to provide culturally congruent care, because if the care we provide is meaningful, sensitive and useful for that culture, then our patients will ultimately benefit.
The McGill Model of Nursing
Developed by Moyra Allen
Graduated from the School of Nursing at McGill University
McGill Model (previously Allen Model)
Key features = health, family, collaboration and nursing
Main focus = promotion of knowledge & preventative medicine
Continues to be a useful framework for modern nursing practice
The McGill Model of Nursing was developed and refined by Dr. Moyra Allen, who devoted her career to nursing education and research at the School of Nursing at McGill University. Dr. Allen saw the field of nursing as taking an active and complementary role in providing healthcare to the community. In doing so, she developed the McGill Model, which was previously known as the Allen Model. Key features of the McGill Model of Nursing are health, family collaboration and learning. The main focus of the McGill Model is the promotion of health knowledge and preventative practices. Within the McGill Model, nurses would encourage a patient or patient's family to actively participate in learning about health. Over the years, the McGill Model has been developed, refined, tested, and implemented in various practice settings and has gained widespread acceptance everywhere as a useful framework for nursing practice.
The McGill Model of Nursing
Emphasizes that all families have ability to promote health, i.e. - health potential
Strength, resources and motivation
Purpose = teach patients/families to serve as foundation for health promotion
Main goal = maintain, strengthen and develop patient's health through education
Patient and family is focus of model
The McGill Model emphasized that all families have the ability to promote health (or as she called it, health potential) using strength, resources and motivation. The model's purpose is to teach patients/families to be able to serve as a foundation for health promotion. The degree of the family's involvement in a patient's health related problem solving and the desire to obtain health related goals reflect upon the patient's and their families' own views of healthcare. In the end, the main goal of the McGill Model is to maintain, strengthen and develop the patient's health by actively engaging them in a learning process. The patient and the patient's family is the focus of this nursing model.
Introduced the concept that expert nurses develop skills and understanding of patient care over time through a sound educational base as well as a multitude of experiences.
Proposed that one could gain knowledge and skills (knowing how) without ever learning the theory (knowing that).
Further explains that the development in applied disciplines such as medicine and nursing is composed of the extension of practical knowledge through research and the characterization and understanding of the "know how" of clinical experience.
Conceptualizes in her writing about nursing skills as experience is prerequisite for becoming an expert.
Levels of Nursing Experience
Beginner with no experience
Taught general rules to help perform tasks
Rules are: context-free, independent of specific cases and applied universally
Demonstrates acceptable performance
Has gained prior experience in actual situations to recognize recurring meaningful components
Principles, based on experiences, begin to be formulated to guide actions
Typically a nurse with 2-3 years experience on the job in the same area or in similar day-to-day situations
More aware of long-term goals
Gains perspective from planning own actions based on conscious, abstract, and analytical thinking and helps to achieve greater efficiency and organization.
Perceives and understands situations as whole parts
More holistic understanding improves decision-making
Learns from experiences what to expect in certain situations and how to modify plans
No longer relies on principles, rules, or guidelines to connect situations and determine actions
Much more background of experience
Has intuitive grasp of clinical situations
Performance is now fluid, flexible, and highly proficient
Graduate of Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, PA
MSN and PhD from University of Pittsburgh
1981: published her first theory "Man-Living-Health"
Name changed to "Theory of Becoming" in 1992
Editor and founder of Nursing Science Quarterly
Published eight books and hundreds of articles about "Human Becoming Theory"
Founder of the Institute of Human Becoming
Dr. Parse is a fellow in the American Academy of Nursing
Human Becoming Theory
Guides nurse in their practice to focus on quality of life as it is lived.
Presents an alternative to both the conventional bio-medical and the bio-psychosocial spiritual approach of most other nursing theories.
Posits quality of life from each person's own perspective as the goal of nursing practice.
The theory is structured around three abiding themes; meaning, rhythmicity, and transcendence.
This principle means people coparticipate in creating what is real for them through self-expression in living their values in a certain way.
This principle means that the unity of life encompasses apparent opposites in rhythmic patterns of relating. It means that in living moment to moment one shows and does not show self as opportunities and limitations emerge in moving with and apart from others.
This principle means that moving beyond the "now" moment is forging a unique personal path for oneself in the midst of ambiguity and continuous change.
To Sum Things Up ...
The time period from 1980 to 1989 involved great social, economic and general change. Madeleine Leininger, Moyra Allen's McGill Model, Patricia Benner, and Rosemarie Parse incorporated great changes in nursing with their developed theories. Many of our nursing interventions today are based on the works of these theorists. Clients and families were taught about health promotion. Levels of nursing, from novice to expert, were outlined. Nurses began providing more cultural congruent care. Nurses focused on client's quality of life from each person's own perspective. The nursing theories outlined in this presentation helped sculpt nursing practice throughout the eighties and continue to have great effects in our practices today. Implementing these theories has greatly benefited our clients by providing meaningful, sensitive, patient-centered care.
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