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India: Independence and Partition

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Imani M

on 10 March 2013

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Transcript of India: Independence and Partition

India Pakistan India: Independence and Partition Imani Madison + Qiyi He Continuing border tensions
Conflict over specific territories
Hatred and rivalry b/n India and Pakistan
Bangladesh (1972, formerly East Pakistan)
Global trend towards decolonization Relentless Border Tension What to do with Kashmir?
Wars (1948 and 1965)
1948: over rights to control it, UN intervened
1965: violence, air strikes, ground fighting
Punjab and Kashmir
ended soon after UN call for cease-fire
Pakistan, in 1971, became military-controlled (was distracted from making an effective civil administration)
None of the wars resulted in a solution Britain was determined to withdraw quickly. The timetable had to be too short for a satisfactory partition and transition. Nationalism Arises to Counter Britain 1885: Indian National Congress (INC)
1906: Party demands self-rule
1906: All-India Muslim League (ML)
Focused on Muslims' issues
Leader: Muhammad Ali Jinnah
1920s: INC non-violent resistance campaign
1930: Gandhi's salt march
1942: Gandhi begins nonviolent Quit India movement The Jewel in the Crown of the British Empire Rivalry Lasting Effects Why? 1610-1858: The British East India Company reaches, takes control of, and dominates India to extract its wealth
1857: Sepoy Mutiny
1858: Britain begins to directly rule India
India Act
Regulations and taxes stifled India's growth while aiding Britain's growth
Tensions reigned through the subcontinent Also Because... British Empire exacerbated their grievances
Divided people by religion in census and electorate
Muslim resistance to merging into Hindu society
Hindu revivalist resentment
ML and INC began to stress each group's differences
INC didn't want a coalition government/ compromise with the ML
ML had been calling for a separate state Why? Britain's economy was in tatters after World War II
India was now an expensive burden, especially since quashing rebellions was getting expensive
American pressure (post-WWII) for Britain to relinquish its colonies
After a few months on a tight schedule of hurried planning by Cyril Radcliffe, and input from Lord Mountbatten, the INC, and the ML, in 1947, India became... Independent and... Partitioned into Hindu majority
Jawaharlal Nehru: 1st prime minister (had been president of INC) Muslim majority
23% of the land mass
17.5% of the former financial assets
lead by Muhammad Al Jinnah (had lead the ML) [ announced on the 17th ] Pakistan India British Capitulation
1935: Government of India Act - more provincial autonomy + INC wins power
1937: First elections (federal system)
1947: Lord Mountbatten becomes last Viceroy of India
Role: help come up with an independence plan The Chaos of Partition Not enough time to organize a smooth transition - a rapid degeneration into chaos
Split Punjab and Bengal provinces
10-15 million+ migrated between the two nations; 1 million+ died on the way or in the fighting
Riots, murders, rapes, and local fighting erupted, especially on the Punjab border (it had been split in two) Competing ideologies
Exacerbated by messy division of assets
Indo-Pakistani "arms race" for nuclear weapons (successful)
Frustrates attempts at compromise or reconciliation Why Kashmir?
Cut through Punjab
Disputes over infrastructure and road, phone, and telegraph communications
No clear infrastructure links
Disrupted irrigation "Composite Dialogue" "to normalize relations" "vacillating attitudes" "pendulum of the relationship" [ 8/15/1947 ] by British judge Cyril Radcliffe
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