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Module 6: Creative Strategy and Execution
Transcript of Module 6: Creative Strategy and Execution
Adam Sternefeld Chapter 6: Creative Strategy
and Execution Creative Strategy is “a policy or guiding principle, which specifies the general nature and character of messages to be designed,” said Charles Frazer (pg. 176, Mueller).
Standardized Advertising refers to messages that are used internationally with virtually no charge in theme, illustration, or copy – except perhaps, for translation where needed (pg. 177, Mueller).
One can take 2 routes to achieve standardization – adopt a successful campaign in a domestic market or preplan a campaign that can be used in multiple markets.
Don’t “reinvent the wheel,” in other markets with a successful campaign; there is no need for this. Good ideas are extremely rare to come across; an example of this would be Snuggle branding itself with a teddy bear. This notion was supported with a lot of research to show why they came up with using a teddy bear. Products Suitable for Standardization The main focus is on teens because they account for about 21 % of the United States total population; this is represented on a local and global aspect of culture. Products in which are suitable are amongst the following list: Products that can be promoted via an image campaign (Ultraviolet Campaign, see figure 6.3 in the textbook, pg. 182)
High tech products, example Sony Plasma Television or now a 3D Television
Nationalistic flavor products, which are a countries high-quality good that they are known for; example, Lexus automobile from Japan or McDonald’s food. Specialization of Advertising Advertisements are specialized because of the need to fulfill a global market, which consist of various life-styles, economies, habits and customs.
Advertising has been positioned as one of the most difficult of the marketing-mix elements to standardize (pg. 185, Mueller). This means that sales promotion, public relations, etc are all adequate in standardizing because they are not trying to sell a product through an advertisement.
Advertisers localize messages for the market they are targeting, which allows for differences in the international environment.
Advertising agencies must do their research and find out about the various laws/regulations and or advertising bans in the nation in which they choose to advertise.
Coca-Cola has begun to specialize their advertisements using the approach, “think local, act local.” On page 189 in the textbook there are various examples as to what this corporate brand has done in regards to specializing its advertisements to cater to different markets. They have done some pretty interesting stuff, especially the ad spot titled, “Night Swim,” which was featured in Italy (this was a very risqué ad with nudity present). The Standardization-Specialization Continuum This is called the standardization-specialization approach because some elements of the promotional plan are standardized, while others are specialized to get away from the all-or-nothing phenomenon of standardization.
Once again Coca-Cola is mentioned in implementing this modified approach with using a Steelers’ football player, Joe Greene. During the commercial a young boy offers him a bottle of coke. This “idea” was used amongst other nations by catering it to a specialized sport in the various markets, while using their “star athlete.” Execution Decisions If strategy refers to “what is said,” then execution refers to “how it is said” (pg. 190, Mueller). Advertising Appeals Advertising appeals “refer to the basis or approach used in the advertisement to attract attention or interest consumers and/or to influence their feelings toward the product, service or cause,” said George and Michael Belch (pg. 191, Mueller).
Ad appeals should remain constant with the target audience
The appeals to advertisements change from markets to markets, for example an ad made by the United States for the United Kingdom might not work in Britain.
Soft-sell approaches are generally used to communicate messages to various markets Themes and Concepts – Universal vs. Culture-Bound Tailoring- a key theme in advertising to various markets due to market conditions
In ’94, de Mooij, developed a list of universal/culture-bound themes, refer to the following list: Universal – basic everyday themes, the made-in concept, product demonstrations, heroes and lifestyle concepts
Culture-Bound – sex appeals, individuality, comparative advertising, role of women, humor and opinions/attitudes Verbal Communication – Copy and Dialogue Communication is key in advertisements; however, when it comes to translating things can backfire an companies advertisement can become a blunder Example: Ford Motors named one of its 3rd world trucks, Fiera; however, when translated in Spanish it means “ugly woman.”
A way to avoid blunders is to have a speaker of the foreign language translate the advertisement, which is trying to be communicated. Music Music can turn into a cornerstone of a global campaign
Country music is hard to transfer from border to border
The Pepsi Cola advertisements are huge in using celebrities to endorse their products, such as Britney Spears, Madonna and the Spice Girls. Creativity in the International Arena Cannes Lion Festival is the largest gathering of international marketing and advertising professionals in the world (pg. 207, Mueller).
BBDO Worldwide was ranked #1 in Television and Print in ‘02
Winning an award at the Cannes Festival is huge and are known around the world; however, there are other awards that can be received for outstanding creativity.
For decades, New York was known as the center of United States advertising creativity (pg. 209, Mueller).
The United States is no longer ranked #1 when it comes to advertising creativity because as research was conducted by Ogilvy and Biel it showed that European advertising is more imaginative. Coca-Cola is a brand found in every market. They use a lot of similar themes, but tailor them to each individual country. Themes Sports as a focus: India: Premier Cricket League
Italy: FIFA Sweepstakes: Xbox Kinect in France
Playstation in US They are able to use a uniform promotional tag:
“Coke Side of Life”
in a variety of places, but narrowly tailor the idea of Coca-Cola as a lifestyle brand to each individual country. Sometimes, one idea can effectively reach a number of countries. Soccer resonates worldwide
Commercial that aired in India:
FIFA World Cup (2006), FIFA is world renowned, would resonate in a wide variety of markets. However, the language must be changed. But, in several instances, a uniform approach will not work. Most countries have Coca-Cola Light instead of Diet Coke because of the stigma associated with a “diet” in most other countries.
Italy used a particularly racy commercial that would not be able to air in most markets. Examples of Standardized Approaches: Simple website, focused on Coke as an addition to the meal, but not really a lifestyle (CokeandMeals).
CocaCola Light Tribute to Fashion: Focuses on youth and beauty Italy Brazil Simple Web site
Associated with carefree, "beachy" lifestyle USA Coca-Cola family night Play Together Contest (Enter the Playstation Move Sweepstakes); focused on Coke as a familial product
Join My Coke rewards
Much more complicated Web site
Music videos India Simple Web site
Premier cricket league Chapter 2: The International
Marketing Mix Promotion Is the final component in the marketing mix Includes advertising, sales promotion, public relations and publicity, and personal selling Advertising Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor “Paid” refers to the fact that the advertiser must purchase time and space for the message
“Non-personal’ refers that the message appears in the mass media
“Identified” refers to the fact that the media requires sponsors to identify themselves Advertising plays a different role in societies from one market to the next For instance the USA spends 534.8 million per capita on advertising while China only spends 3.7 Advertising can be standardized (same theme for each foreign market) or specialized (messages are adapted for local markets) Of all the elements of the marketing mix advertising is generally the most difficult to standardize For advertising, along with whether to standardize or specialize, an international marketer must decide on the appropriate message content. Has to gain the attention of the target audience and has to appear in the appropriate medium Sales Promotion The goal of sales promotion is to stimulate immediate consumer purchasing or dealer effectiveness This can be done with coupons, premiums, samples, and point of purchase displays While sales promotions can be rewarding in foreign markets, marketers must be aware of potential pitfalls such as cultural differences among consumers and laws in foreign markets For Instance Proctor & Gamble mailed free samples of shampoo to consumers in Warsaw. However the samples were in such demand several mailboxes were broken into to get them.
In Germany it is illegal to have buy-one-get-one-free offers Public Relations Public relations involves a variety of efforts to create and maintain a positive image of an organization with its various constituencies
There are two main forms of public relations: corporate public relations and marketing public relations (MPR). Corporate public relations focuses on organization’s noncustomer constituencies, such as employees, the media and the public at large
MPR focus is specifically an organization’s interactions with current and potentials consumers MPR MPR supports marketing’s product and sales focus by increasing the brand company’s credibility with consumers
MPR is further broken down as either being proactive or reactive public relations Proactive MPR is offensively rather than defensively oriented and opportunistic rather than remedial. Is a tool for communications a brand’s merits and is typically used in conjunction with advertising, sales promotion and personal selling. Is typically used when introducing a new product and announcing product revisions.
Reactive MPR is undertaken as a result of external pressures and challenges that might be brought on by competitive actions, shifts in consumer attitudes, changes in government policy, or other external influences. Generally deals with changes that have negative consequences for a company Publicity plays a part of public relations, seeking favorable comments on the product/service or firm itself through news stories, editorials, or announcements in the mass media. Publicity is not directly paid for by the company and the company has no control over the content or frequency of the coverage Personal Selling Personal selling involves individual, personal contact with the customer, with the intent of either making an immediate sale or developing a long-term relationship that will eventually result in a sale Can include sales calls or customer assistance at a retail outlet Is often the most expensive elements in the promotion mix on a per customer basis
Personally selling is closely linked to national or regional cultural characteristics As a result most companies prefer to use sales representatives from the host country to staff the sales force Direct Marketing Direct marketing refers to a way of doing business in which the marketer attempts to sell goods directly to the consumer without the aid of a wholesaler or retailer that incorporates a degree of two way communication
Is not considered an element in the promotion mix but has an increasingly important role in the communications programs of many different kinds of organizations
Direct selling, direct mail, telemarketing, and catalog sales are commonly employed in direct response campaigns
Direct Marketing has the potential to do well however is may play a minimal role or even be nonexistent in some markets For example, in the Middle East direct marketing is relatively new and undeveloped promotional tool. This is because of the problem with names, some Arabs don’t use surnames or use different names for different purposes, and also mailing lists, not much effort in updating or cleaning them. Sponsorship The objectives of sponsorships include: increasing the awareness of a company and its brands, enhancing the corporate or brand image, and showing corporate responsibility
In a global study by WPP Group’s Mediaedge:cia they surveyed 12,000 consumers in 18 countries by telephone and over the Internet. The survey found 53% of male respondents said sports sponsorships strongly influence their buying habits, while 70% of women said they would buy a product if its maker sponsored a good cause.
Sponsorships do have some drawbacks: sponsorships are costly and the potential of an event having many sponsors creates clutterSponsorships can take a variety of forms: sports events, entertainment attractions, nonprofit organizations Working with a nonprofit organization is also known as cause-related marketing. This allows firms to enhance their brand’s images and sales while allowing nonprofit partners to obtain additional funding. Regardless of the form a sponsorship takes, successful sponsorships require a meaningful fit among the brand, event or cause, and the target market. Avon, the world’s largest direct seller of beauty and related products, sponsors programs such as Avon Worldwide Fund for Women’s Health and Avon’s Breast Cancer Crusade Trade Fairs Trade fairs, also known as trade shows, are a temporary forum for sellers of a product category to exhibit and demonstrate their wares to prospective buyers
Thousands of trade shows are conducted worldwide annually and play a large role abroad
Trade shows account for up to one third of a typical European firm’s marketing budget
Trade shows functions include: Servicing present customers
Introducing new or modified products
Gathering information about competitor’s new products
Taking product orders
Enhancing the company’s image Integrated Marketing Communications Marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a compressive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency and maxim impact.
IMC major benefit is synergism of individual efforts being mutually reinforced with the resulting effect being greater than if each functional area had selected its own strategy
An eight-step integrated global marketing communications planning process: Global Customer/ Prospect Database
Customer Prospect Valuation
Contact Points and Preferences
Brand or Organization Relationships
Message and Incentive Development and Delivery
Estimate on Return on Customer Investment
Investment and Allocation
Marketplace Measurement McDonald's is a brand found in every market. They have specialized products and tailored promotions for each individual market. USA Web site featured:
Chipotle BBQ Bacon Angus Promotions Chipotle BBQ Bacon Angus
Caramel Mocha Mexico Web site featured:
Los Pinguinos de Madagascar Promotions A different burger with a special deal for every day of the week Referred to as: “McTrio Del Dia”
Monday = McNifica
Tuesday = McPollo BBQ
Wednesday = Cuarto de Libra
Thursday = Big Mac
Friday = McRib
Saturday = Hamburguesa Doble Rojo Vivo
Sunday = McPollo A different breakfast meal with a special deal for every day of the week Referred to as: “McTrio Del Dia Desayunos”
Monday = Hot Cakes
Tuesday = McMuffin Huevo y Tocino
Wednesday = McMuffin a la Mexicana
Thursday = McMuffin Huevo y Lomo
Friday = McBurrito a la Mexicana con Frijoles
Saturday= McMuffin Huevo y Salchicha
Sunday = McBurrito a la Mexicana Egypt Web site featured: BigMac EVM
Ice Cream Sundae
They have Wi-Fi and Plasma TVs
Open 24 hours Other items: McRoyale
McArabia Japan Web site featured: JewelPet and Narvto
The 40th Anniversary of the 1st store opened in Japan Other items: McHotdog McDonald's Japan, President, Chairman, and CEO - Harada France Web site featured: La Gamme Café
Sundae Framboise Groseille
Les Boites A Salade
Nos P’Tits Plaisirs United Kingdom Web site featured: Star Wars: Clone Wars
IPhone App with restaurant locater
Chicken McNuggest Share Box AdForum's Top 5 Ads of the Week Greenpeace "Love Forest" Rive Syphilis “Syphilis lollipop” http://attitude.adforum.com/top5/2011/02/15/rive-syphilis-syphilis-lollipop-luvi-ogilvy/ AIDES "Graffitti" Durex "Balloons/Get It On" Helen Bamber Foundation "Vows" All Top 5 Ads carry culture-bound messages, with themes such as sex appeal, individuality, role of women, humor and attitudes. The End!