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Geothermal Energy

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ryan gabelman

on 2 December 2014

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Transcript of Geothermal Energy

Geothermal Energy
Technology and Cost
Geothermal Heat Pumps & Geothermal Power Plants
Non U.S. Example
New Zealand geothermal projects
Carbon Dioxide, Greenhouse Gases, & Other Emissions
The Humble Beginnings of Geothermal Energy
Geothermal Heat Pumps
For domestic use
Extremely efficient
Equalizes extreme temperatures with stable heat from the shallow earth.
Ngatamariki Power Plant
82MW plant
7 square kilometers
7 wells
475 million $
completed in 21 months
700 GWH per annum
Biggest Binary plant in the world
Ormat Modular system
Geothermal for Energy
Te Mihi Power Plant
159MW plant
2 83MW steam turbines
750 million $
final stages of construction
Plans for further expansion enough to power 200,000 homes by 2026
CO2 emissions are approximately 30-50 times less than a fossil fuel plant
Zero emissions from a Binary Geothermal Plant
Tapping Geothermal Reservoirs to Produce Power

Cherokee Station
Sonoma County

Ancient History
854MW capacity so far
13% of electricity from geothermal sources
Abundant geothermal sources
Geothermal energy is the most reliable source of renewable energy in NZ
committed for further expansion
plans to make geothermal energy 30% of national baseload by 2030
Geothermal Reservoirs
- The first known use of geothermal energy was hot springs and the natural heating of caves.
- Italian scientist Piero Ginori Conti invented the very first geothermal energy plant at Larderello in Tuscany.

-It was only a small 10 kilowatt generator, but it began the geothermal revolution.
240-400 ºC
200-350 ºC
120-200 ºC
Geothermal Potential In the US
The Future:
Enhanced Geothermal Systems
Manufactured Reservoirs
12" opening, Fe-O-S compounds
Steam is superheated 410ºC, 40 bars, potential output of 30-40 MWe
$88-$92 /MWh
Climate Implications
Carbon Dioxide
US Example of Geothermal
Ball State University
The Geysers
May 2009 - Announced largest ground-source geothermal system
All 47 buildings on campus will receive heating and cooling from the ground source heat pump.
Over 5.5 million sq feet.
Carbon footprint cut in half.
2 million dollars in energy savings.
Set to be completed this year.
- In 2012, US led the world with 3386 MW installed capacity.
- Worlds largest geothermal field in the world is in California

Located in California-Largest geothermal site in the world, spans over 30 sq miles.
22 Geothermal plants, with over 350 wells drilled.
60% of the power demanded on the coastline from the Goldengate Bridge to the Oregon state line.
Dry-steam, unlike most geothermal plants.
Steam comes from a magma chamber 4 miles beneath the surface, estimated at 8 miles in diameter.
Early Geothermal Discovery
- In 1807, the first European to visit the Yellowstone area, John Colter, encountered the hot springs, from then on the Yellowstone area was designated "Colter's Hell."
Risks of Geothermal Energy
Induced seismology
Risks of Geothermal Energy: Induced Seismology
Unequal thermal expansion due to recycling of water
Multiple significant earthquakes
3.4 in Basel, Switzerland
6.0 in Oroville, California
Geographical limitations to drilling
Risks of Geothermal Energy: Induced Seismology - Prevention
As much as 7 million dollars in damages
Highly costly, yet highly preventable
Can continue to be a reliable renewable resource
Risks of Geothermal Energy: Conclusions
Risks do exist, however they are dwarfed by similar risks from other energy sources
SO2 emissions are at most 3% of those of coal and oil plants
Induced seismology is a significant issue, but can be prevented with careful planning
Ultimately a relatively low risk resource that should be utilized
Source: http://www.physics.oregonstate.edu/~demareed/313Wiki/lib/exe/fetch.php?w=&h=&cache=cache&media=geothermalmap-big.jpg
Source: http://www.geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/AGuidetoGeothermalEnergy- andtheEnvironment10.6.10.pdf
Source: http://www.geo-energy.org/pdf/reports/AGuidetoGeothermalEnergy- andtheEnvironment10.6.10.pdf
Still have Carbon Dioxide emissions for two types of plants
Geothermal fluids have potential to contaminate groundwater
Paul Chappus
Sean Bacon
Drew Dunham
Ryan Gabelman
Devin Kelsey
Brian Chu

Advantages Disadvantages
Drastic reduction of Carbon Dioxide emissions
Negligible amounts of other greenhouse gases
Full transcript