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Transcript of Motivation
This theory emphasizes that individuals are aroused to action by innate needs and intrinsic pressures, rather than by extrinsic rewards or punishments. There are different variations of this theories that can be implemented into a classroom, however, these are important to for a classroom. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Needs Disposition Theory, DeCharms concept of origin and pawns, and Csikszentmihalyi States optimal experience. When in a classroom it is important that these different needs are met by a student if not the focus will not be in the classroom and they can lose focus in their academic study.
Cognitive theorists believe that individuals are aroused to action by their thinking.The need to understand is the center of the motivational theory. People are motivated by the need to understand and make sense of the world. Individuals' actions are influenced by their beliefs and attributions, particularly attributions about success and failure situations.
Behavior and the correct use of reinforcers are essential in an individuals development. Reinforcers are used to increase certain behaviors, but it is of great importance to know the distinction between: positive, negative and a punishment.
may be used as a reward to increase desired behavior. In Contrast,
, is when something is already present but it is taken away due to behavioral issue, but this behavior will have created a favorable outcome for the individual; leading him/her to repeating behavior. For example, if it is homework time and the child is misbehaving and gets sent on "time out"; the child will continue to misbehave since negative reinforcer is preventing him from doing homework(intentionally), which he finds "boring". A
is a penalty for wrong doing, which leads the individual to avoid specific conduct. For example, individual's action prevents him/her from being able to play outside, which they desired, will eventually stop misbehavior.
Needs disposition theory is a more general needs theory of Maslow's and applied it to the specific needs relevant to teaching and classrooms. This theory suggest that individuals are motivated to take action and to invest energy in pursuit of three outcomes: achievement, affiliation, and influence. In a classroom a teacher can manifest achievement motives as they strive to provide good instruction and act as competent professionals. Affiliate motives become importance when students and teachers come to value the support and friendships of their peers. The motivation toward influence can be seen in those students who strive to have more control over their own learning.
DeCharms used the concept of origin and pawn. Pawns are represents the type of person who has no control over what happens and they feel they are always doing what others want them to. Origins is the type of person that takes control of there own behavior an action, but tend not to follow the rules. In the classroom you can are able to distinguish these students based off the types of discussion held in class. For instance, when you have your class working on a group assignment there will be some students that will take charge of the assignment and give different task to students to get the work done. When it is noticeable the student is an origin they can also be used to be paired up with students that are falling behind in a classroom to help assist their peers.
Students usually like to participate and shout out answers when teacher asks for response. However, when they are to do these type of activities they also tend to overexcite and it is hard for them to stay in one spot. Teacher ignores that type of behavior, since student is still participating, and focuses on the desired. TA disrupts lesson and suggests misbehaved student to sit next to her, intending to use this as a punishment. Student dislikes he was moved from where the rest of the children were and completely shuts off. Yes, this served as a punishment, but was not effective due to child's response. The key is to use punishment when needed without removing child's participation or interest in the activity.
Social Learning Theory
Bernard Weiner's attribution theory is of particular importance to teachers. He believes students attribute their success or failures in terms of four cases: ability, effort, luck, and difficulty of the learning task.
The four main components of the social learning theory, developed by Albert Bandura, are attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. In order for a student to maintain attention to what is being taught, educators must consider how attractive, interesting, and relatable their lessons are to their students. By doing so, it is highly more likely that a student will be able to retain the information and reproduce it later. Furthermore, a student’s motivation to repeat the behavior is also important because it allows educators to monitor whether the student is demonstrating the behavior properly and whether or not reinforcement or punishment will take place. One of the weaknesses of this theory is that it doesn’t take into account the complexity of human behavior such as different personalities, biological differences, and has an overall lack of human differences. However, I believe it is an important theory because it encompasses memory, attention, and motivation that can be linked to cognitive and behaviorist theories and is very useful in explaining how students acquire new behaviors and learn new things.
What is motivation?
Motivation is a internal state that stimulates, directs, and maintains behavior. Motivation affects both the learning process and students' behavior. It directs students behavior by using reinforcements whether positive or negative. Motivations increases effort and enhances the thought process. Motivation can be broken down into two categories: Intrinsic and Extrinsic.
When assessing students, teachers will have a wide arrange of grades. When students receive their grades they are usually proud or discouraged depending on the grade they have received. An example of motivating the students when this situation occurs could be that the teacher pairs students by test results (a high score student with a low one) to compare strategies. Pairing students based on ability will create confidence in both students, help them succeed, and develop better individual strategy skills.
Individual's behavior is influenced on their environment and previous reinforcers by caregiver, guardian, or teacher. Privileges are granted to desirable conducts as positive reinforcement. Teacher gives students instructions to sit in a certain spot keeping their hands and feet to themselves. For those students who were able to listen and follow instructions, without disrupting the class, privileges such as "table manager", "team leader", "chair manager" etc. were given. This reinforcer served as motivation for the students to behave properly and follow instructions. Once students, who did not follow instructions, were aware of the duties they could have gotten, their expression, posture and listening skills transformed drastically.
Behavior charts may be used as feedback or sometimes as punishment. However, the outcome teachers get off the use of the chart truly identifies its effectiveness. Teacher sets 4 different colors in chart: green-good, yellow-warning, orange-2nd warning, and red-sent to office/parent conference. Teacher tries using this technique as a way to have control over conduct. However, one student comments, "what color are you on?...I'm on yellow." Another students replies, "I'm on orange...I beat you" (with a grin on his face). Although, teacher's intention is to use this as a punishment. The actual outcome is that it is serving as a negative reinforcer. Therefore, the students' are focusing on the desire to have the closest color to red, and are taking this chart as a joke and competition.
Intrinsic motivation is associated with seeking out and conquering challenges for their own enjoyment. An example of intrinsic motivation would be a student going to the library to check out a book on a topic that was introduced in class. These types of students are normally eager to learn and welcome challenges.
Extrinsic motivation is associated with external factors. Common motivators would be rewards and or punishment depending on the circumstance. For example, teachers assigning points for good behavior that would in exchange be added to a students lowest test grade would be considered an extrinsic motivator. Some characteristics of these students are avoidance in challenges and dislike learning.
Teacher is responsible for testing students for the first time. Therefore, she groups children and provides activities while she tests one group at a time. Students are to accomplish activities and move on to other stations. However, TA is to verify they accomplish the tasks before moving on and are given a snack and a sticker if accomplished. Students then realize that snacks and stickers are only given to those who finish their alphabetic arc and work quietly. As a result, students imitate that desired/expected behavior and continuously repeat it. This effective technique granted the teacher to have control over class, test the students and reinforced good behavior in students.
Teachers need to be able to balance out both of these categories. Motivating our students will keep them interested in learning. Four examples of motivation point of views include the reinforcement, needs, cognitive, and social learning theories.
Create/Organize Prezi- Denise
Intro(slides 2-5)- Denise
Reinforcement Theory(slides 6-10)- Karen
Needs Theory(slides 11-15)- Clarissa
Cognitive Theory(slides 16-21)- Denise
Social Learning Theory(slides 22-26)- Isaa
Internal Attribution External Attribution
In Maslow's Needs of Hierarchy, there are seven categories of levels and within those seven categories it is divided into two different levels of needs that are meet by people. The lower level needs include food and shelter, to be safe, and to belong. The higher level are more complex and refer to human growth, such as need to know and understand, Aesthetic needs, and self-actualization needs. According to this theory if students are able to meet lower level needs their focus will focus more on wanting to gain more knowledge and understand of the world around them. For instance, during one of my observations I saw a great way this theory was put into place by having one different student a day be a greeter for the classroom. The job of the greeter was to stand at the door as the students walked in to begin their day and they had to greet each individual student by saying "Good Morning". This gives the greeter a scene of belonging because they have an important role in the classroom, while the other students feels cared for because the other student is taking time to great them.
Mihally Csikszentmihalyi studied what he labeled "state of optimal experience", also known as flow experiences. This experience can happen in peoples lives where they have total involvement and concentration towards an activity while bring profound feelings of enjoyment. For instance, students that don't do well academically in the classroom can be excellent athletes. Now because they are excellent athletes and it consumes most of their time and they enjoy the physical activity that will motivate them to do better in the classroom.
One of the biggest motivators for students is teacher feedback. The teacher I interviewed uses positive feedback in her classroom. The teacher emphasized that feedback needs to be given immediately after a task is completed. This strategy should be delivered in a positive manner whether a student is right or wrong. When students have knowledge that they are doing well, it gives them a sense of achievement which motivates them to learn more.
A point system can be incorporated into the classroom as extrinsic motivation in order to teach children to become self-reliant. Students know that homework must be turned in at the beginning of class, but they can earn extra points for turning their homework into the “homework bin” at the beginning of class. Good behavior and participation is another way students can earn more points. These simple and achievable tasks motivate the students to strive for success. Furthermore, this student/teacher interaction used by the teacher I observe incorporates positive reinforcement as feedback thus allowing the students to increase their self-reliance and self-interest in becoming successful.
Another example of this theory the teacher practices is setting goals. Goals improve academic performance, increases motivation, and increases self-confidence. The teacher I interviewed also mentioned how she likes to measure her students' achievements by writing down dates and times for the completion of her students goals. When students see their results it not only gives them confidence but, assurance that they can achieve higher goals.
Working in groups is an effective way to utilize social learning in the classroom. The teacher asked the students to form groups of 2-3 students and asked them to come up with three main ideas from a story they had just read. This allowed students the opportunity to share and discuss their ideas while learning how to cooperate effectively in a group. After they were through, they read their list out loud to the class. The purpose of this assignment was to check the spelling and grammar of the list the students turned in, but the students saw it as more than just a writing assignment. They were eager to work in a group and share their ideas on an interesting topic.
Teachers can talk with students about the important role that effort plays in school success. Just because one student has to work harder than an another to complete the same task does not mean that student has a lower ability. As teachers, we can encourage our students to evaluate their success and failures in relationship to the amount of effort they put in their work.
In order to grasp and maintain the students’ attention, the teacher gave her students the opportunity to select a topic to write about, and then allowed them to read it out loud to the class. This gave the students a real audience and purpose while increasing their motivation to do the best on their assignment. Furthermore, students were allowed to express their ideas in a judgemental-free environment, thus creating an atmosphere where everyone’s interpretations and opinions were valid. The teacher not only emphasized the importance of not being judgmental but demonstrated it as well. The students reflected her behavior and created a positive classroom environment.
During one of the spelling lessons the teacher was conducting, a sudden thunderstorm grasped the students’ attention away from the lesson. Instead of scolding the children for becoming distracted, she incorporated it into the lesson. She asked the students to come up with a new spelling word related to thunderstorms, and then to tell the class whether or not they liked them and to share an experience they’ve had with one. Because the storm was so loud, she knew that it would be almost inevitable to ask the students to ignore it. By doing this, the students became motivated to participate in the lesson and ultimately enjoyed learning.