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Comp. History of Civ: China

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Tamás Matura

on 6 December 2018

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Transcript of Comp. History of Civ: China

Comparative History of Civilisations:
dr. Tamás MATURA
Corvinus University of Budapest



The importance of China; overview of the Chinese world; its interior fragmentation (regions, ethnics, religions etc.); and typical misbeliefs and prejudices. The East Asian region as a whole (the Asia-Pacific), and its basic geostrategic environment.

1. Introduction
territory: 9,640,821 km2 (+/-)

population: 1,403,807,055 (2015)

GDP: USD 11.000 billion (2015)
GDP (PPP): USD 19.400 billion (2015)

GDP/cap: USD 8.000 (2015)
GDP/cap (PPP): USD 14.000 (2015)

currency: Renminbi (CNY, yuan)
1 RMB=45 HUF= 0.15USD

China in numbers
Map of China
Yangtze or Chang Jiang
Yellow River or Huang He
China
Religions
Peoples and languages
Geography
China

The early stages of the Chinese civilization, and its most important periods with a special impact on international relations (Waring States Period, the first empire, Zheng He)


2. History I.
First written evidences: 1500 b.c.
Mythic ages
Xia (2070-1600b.c.)
Shang (1600-1046b.c.)
Zhou (1027-221b.c.)
Warring States Period
Qin Dynasty (221–206 b.c.)
Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
Qing-dinasztia (1644-1911)
(453/403–221b.c.) During the final years of the Eastern Zhou period the royal family had lost its power, and seven kingdoms ruled over the territory of China (Qi, Chu, Yan, Han, Zhao, Wei and Qin). The period is known for its permanent wars between the seven stated, which had concluded in a final clash between the three strongest states in which the king of Qin defeated all of its adversaries and unified China for the first time in 221 b.c. That was the beginning of the Qin Dynasty.
The Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) was established by the Mongolian invaders of China. Hordes of Genghis Khan conquered the Western Xia state in 1227, while the successor of Ghengis, Ögedei Khan destroyed the Jin Dynasty in 1234. The invasion of the Southern Song Dynasty started in 1235, but it was only Kubilai Khan who was able to finish the wars and to establish the Yuan Dynasty in 1271 and made Beijing its capital city. He wiped out the Southern Song state in 1279, and thus unified entire China again.
1273: introduction of paper banknotes
(Konfucius Enciklopédia)

China in the 19th century and the Qing Dynasty; first conflicts with the West and the century of defeat and humiliation; social unrest and economic downturn; political crisis, the fall of the empire and the republic; civil war and the war against Imperial Japan.

3. History II.
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
1913: Sun was succeeded by General Yuan Shi-kai. Yuan introduced a military dictatorship, and disbanded Koumintang

1915: Yuan proclaimed himself the new emperor, and started to abolish the provincial system, alienated local leaders and noble people, the era of warlords.

1916: resignation of Yuan

1919: Sun reorganized Koumintang in Canton, his goal was to unify the country

1921: the establishment of the Communist Party of China

1925: Sun dies, the rise of Chiang Kai-shek

1927–1937: the first decade of the civil war

1931: Occupation of Manchuria by Imperial Japan

1934: the Long March

1935: the rise of Mao Zedong

1936: the new wave of Japanese aggression, pause of the civil war

1945-1947:restart of the civil war after failed attempts of negotiations

1946-1947: birth of the People's Liberation Army

1949: the demise of nationalist forces and their retreat to Taiwan

1st of October, 1949: the proclamation of the People's Republic of China

1699: opening of the first British rep office in Canton

1793: the mission of Lord Macartney to Beijing

1820-1830: economic crisis due to extensive opium imports

1839: imperial ban on opium imports

1840-1842: the First Opium War, the beginning of the Century of Humiliation

1842: Treaty of Nanjing (opening up of Hong Kong, Canton, Xiamen, Ningbo, Fuzhou and Shanghai, compensation, lowering of duties, and extra-territorial rights.

1856-1860: the Second Opium War (free movement of foreigners, legalization of opium trade, opening up of Tianjin, embassies in Beijing)

1884-1885: French-Chinese Wars in Vietnam

1894-1895: the first China-Japan War (Treaty of Shimonoseki: Liaodong Peninsula, Taiwan, Korea, compensation)

Uprisings
1850-1864: Taiping Rebellion (Hong Xiuquan the brother of Jesus, Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, common ownership of property, 20-30 million casualties

1900-1901: Boxer Rebellion (The Righteous and Harmonious Fists, attacks on embassies and diplomats, Eight Nations Alliance: GB, IT, DE, RUS, AHE, FR, JP, US; compensations)

1911: Wuchang Rebellion (Sun Yatsen, Republic of China, Yuan Shi-kai)

Neolithic
–The Neolithic age traced back to 10,000 BC
–Early evidence for proto-Chinese millet agriculture is carbon-dated to about 7,000 BC
–Population was increased due to agriculture, the ability to store and redistribute crops and to support specialist craftsmen and administrators
–In late Neolithic times, the Yellow River valley began to establish itself as a culture center, and the first villages were founded
–Early history of China is complicated by the lack of a written language during this period
–At Damaidi site in Ningxia, 3172 cliff carvings dating to 6000-5000 BC have been discovered “featuring 8453 individual characters such as the sun, moon, stars, gods and scenes of hunting or grazing”; these pictographs are reputed to be similar to the earliest characters confirmed to be written Chinese
Paleolithic
–China was inhabited by Homo erectus more than 1 million years ago
–The archaeological site of Xihoudu site in Shanxi Province is the earliest recorded of use of fire by Homo erectus 1.27 million years ago
–The excavations at Yuanmou and later Lantian show early habitation
–The most specimen of Homo erectus found in China is the so-called Peking Man discovered in 1965
Chinese civilization originated in various city-states along the Yellow River Valley in the Neolithic era.
A history of 4700 years since Yellow Emperor during the period of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors; the written history of China begins with Shang Dynasty 3600 years ago when turtle shells with ancient Chinese writing were carbon dated in 1500BC
The Three Sovereigns
–Sometimes known as the Three August Ones, were said to be god-kings or demigods
–Used their magical powers to improve the lives of their people
–In Records of the Grand Historian, it states that they were “the Heavenly Sovereign”, “the Earthly Sovereign” and “the Human Sovereign”
–In Chunqiu Yundou Shuand Chunqiu Yuanming Bao, they were identified as “Fuxi”, “Nuwa” and “Shennong”

Five Emperors
–They were legendary, morally perfect sage-kings
–According to Records of the Grand Historian, they were “the Yellow Emperor”, “Zhuanxu”, “Emperor Ku”, “Emperor Yao”, and “Emperor Shun”
–The Songs of Chuidentifies the Five Emperors as “Shaohao (east)”, “Zhuanxu (north)”, “Yellow Emperor (center)”, “Shennong (west)” and “Fuxi (south)”
Xia Dynasty (2100 –1600 BC)
–The first dynasty to be described in ancient historical records such as Records of the Grand Historianand Bamboo Annals
–The Bamboo Annals date the founding of the Xia Dynasty to 4200 years ago
–Founded when Shun abdicated the throne in favor of his minister Yu, whom Shun viewed as the perfect civil servant
–Yu was greatly praised by his people for eliminating flooding by organizing the building of canals in all the major rivers
–Most archaeologists connect the Xia to excavations at Erlitou in central Henan provice, where a broze smelter from around 2000 BC was unearthed
–Early markings from this period found on pottery and shells are thought to be ancestors of modern Chinese characters with few clear records matching the Shang oracle bones or the Zhou bronze vessel writings
–The Xia era remains poorly understood.
Shang Dynasty (1600 –1046 BC)
–The earliest discovered written record of China's past dates, takes the form of inscriptions of divination records on the bones or shells of animals, called oracle bones

–Shang Dynasty is divided into two sets

The First set, from the earlier Shang period
(1600-1300 BC), comes from sources at Erligang, Zhengzhou and Shangcheng

The Second set, from the later Shang or Yin period, consists of a large body of oracle bone writings
–Fully developed system of writing as attested on bronze inscriptions, oracle bones, and a small number of other writings on pottery, jade and other stones, horn, etc
–Bronze casting and pottery also advanced in Shang Culture
–Shang Zhou, the last Shang king, committed suicide after his army was defeated by the Zhou people
Zhou Dynasty (1027 –221 BC, Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou Dynasties)

–Longest dynasty in Chinese history
–By the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Zhou Dynasty began to emerge in the Yellow River valley, overrunning the Shang
–The Zhou appeared to have begun their rule under a semi-feudal system

–The king of Zhou at this time invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that would be influential for almost every successive dynasty
Qin Dynasty (221 BC –206 BC)
–The unification of China in 221 BC under the First Emperor Qin Shi Huang marked the beginning of Imperial China
–Though the unified reign of the Qin Emperor lasted only 12 years, he managed to subdue great parts of what constitutes the core of the Han Chinese homeland and unite them under a tightly centralized legalist government seated at Xianyang (close to modern Xi'an)
–The doctrine of legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence of a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor
–A lavish tomb for the emperor, complete with a Terracotta Army, was built near the capital Xianyang
Qing Dynasty (1644 -1911)
–Founded after the defeat of the Ming, the last Han Chinese dynasty, by the Manchus
–Over the next half century, the Qing consolidated control of some areas originally under the Ming; they also stretched their sphere of influence over Xinjiang, Tibet and MongoliaEmperor
–In the nineteenth century, Qing control weakened
–Britain's desire to continue its opium trade with China collided with imperial edicts prohibiting the addictive drug
–First Opium War erupted in 1840
–Hong Kong was ceded to Britain in 1842 under the Treaty of Nanjing
–A large rebellion, the Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864) involved around a third of China falling under control of the Taiping Tianguo, a quasi-Christian religious movement. Taipings finally crushed after 14 years by the Third Battle of Nanking in 1864
–More costly rebellions in terms of human lives and economics followed with the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars, Nien Rebellion, Muslim Rebellion, Panthay Rebellion and the Boxer Rebellion
–In many ways, the rebellions and the unequal treaties the Qing was forced to sign with the imperialist powers are symptomatic of the Qing‟s inability to deal with the new challenges of the 19th century
–The Boxer Rebellion threatened northern China. This was a conservative anti-imperialist movement that sought to return China to old ways

–The Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China

–Mass civil disorder had begun and continuously grown
–Both the Empress Dowager Cixi and the Guangxu emperor died in 1908, leaving a relatively powerless and unstable central authority

–The Wuchang Uprising succeeded in October 10, 1911 and was followed by a proclamation of a separate central government, the Republic of China
Meanwhile in Europe:
The Neolithic reached Central Europe in the 6th millennium BC and parts of Northern Europe in the 5th and 4th millenniums BC.
Meanwhile in Europe:
Minoan civilization on Crete from the 27th century BC to the 15th century BC
Mycenaean civilization between 1600 BC and 1100 BC

Meanwhile in Europe:
- 753 BC: Founding of Rome
- 431–404 BC: Peloponnesian War
- 356-323 BC: Alexander the Great
-
Meanwhile in Europe:
-218–201 BC: The Second Punic War - Hannibal
Meanwhile in Europe:
- 1242: Mongol invasion
- 1346–1353: Black Death
Meanwhile in Europe:
-1618–1648: Thirty Years' War
- Age of Absolutism
- Industrial Revolution
- English and French Revolutions
- National movements
- Demise of the Ottomans
- British Empire
Ming Dynasty (1368–1644)
A Ming-dinasztia (1368-1644) Kína történelmének legkiemelkedőbb korszakai tartozik, amikor a Középső Birodalom technológiai, gazdasági, társadalmi és kulturális fejlettsége messze megelőzte a korabeli Európáét. A szegény paraszti sorból hadvezérré emelkedett Zhu Yuanzhang a mongol eredetű jüan uralomnak, császárrá nyilvánította magát és megalapította a Ming dinasztiát 1368-ban, fővárosát Nankingban rendezte be. Utóda áthelyezte a birodalom fővárosát a mai Pekingbe és 1407-1420 között felépítették az új települést, középpontjában a
császári palotával, a Tiltott Várossal.
Kolumbusz előtt közel 90 évvel, 1405-ben Zeng He admirális a császár parancsára épített, 317 hatalmas, a korabeli európai árbócosoknál akár ötször nagyobb hajókból álló, huszonnyolcezer tengerészt számláló
flottájával Dél-Kínából elhajózott Délkelet-Ázsiába, Indiába és talán Kelet-Afrikába is, anélkül tért haza, hogy meghódította volna e területeket.
Mindeközben:
A Ming-dinasztia idejére esett az európai gyarmatosítás kezdete és az ipari forradalom korai
szakasza. A reformáció és a reneszánsz jelentősen hozzájárult Európa felemelkedéséhez, a
globális kereskedelem és világrend kialakulásához. Ekkor alkotott Machiavelli és indult meg
az Ottomán Birodalom növekedése.
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