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Edith Margaret Garrud - Suffragette
Transcript of Edith Margaret Garrud - Suffragette
She was born Edith Margaret Williams in Bath, Somerset in the year 1872.
Five years later, her family moved to Wales, where she remained until circa 1893, when she married William Garrud,
William was a physical culture instructor specialising in gymnastics, boxing and wrestling.
They moved to London where William carried on working as a Physical Culture instructor
In 1899 they were introduced to Jujitsu by Edward Barton-Wright the first jujitsu in Europe
We have not yet made ourselves a match for the police, and we have got to do it. The police know jiu-jitsu. I advise you to learn jiu-jitsu. Women should practice it as well as men.
Don’t come to meetings without sticks in future, men and women alike. It is worth while really striking. It is no use pretending. We have got to fight.
Sylvia Pankhurst 1913.
"In proportion as the Suffragettes increase in number and in power, so also do the JU-JUTSUFFRAGETTES"
Health & Safety July 1910
Edith Garrud (aged 94, in the year 1966) demonstrates a jujitsu wrist lock on reporter Godfrey Winn.
From Kensington to Billingsgate
One hears the restless cries!
From ev'ry corner of the land:
Political equality and equal rights with men!
Take heart! For Missus Pankhurst has been clapped in irons again!
No more the meek and mild subservients we!
We're fighting for our rights, militantly!
Never you fear!
So, cast off the shackles of yesterday!
Shoulder to shoulder into the fray!
Our daughters' daughters will adore us
And they'll sign in grateful chorus
"Well done! Well done!
Well done Sister Suffragette!"
It's grand to be an Englishman in 1910!
King Edward's on the throne: It's the age of men!
I'm the lord of my castle, the sovereign, the liege.
I treat my subjects, servants, children, wife with a firm but gentle hand, noblesse oblige.
We're clearly soldiers in petticoats,
and dauntless crusaders for women's votes.
Though we adore men individually,
we agree that as a group, they're rather stupid.
Cast off the shackles of yesterday!
Shoulder to shoulder into the fray!
Our daughters' daughters will adore us,
and they'll sing in grateful chorus:
Well done! Sister suffragette!
1910 - Two Views
Edith's school would in later years become a refuge for suffragettes engaged in smashing windows in the West End in 1912. They would hide their hammers under the floor boards and pretend to be engaged in a class when the police called.
To counter these unfavourable depictions of campaigners as being unfeminine, suffragettes who practised martial arts cultivated a dainty appearance, and showed that a jujitsu girl could be lithe, ladylike and respectable.
Jujitsu allowed suffragettes to level the playing field without offending expectations of femininity.
The Ju-Jitsu School
Following this presentation to the WSPU, Edith became a celebrity and was featured in the magazine, Health and Strength,
"A new terror for the London Police. The policemen of London are feeling rather uneasy at the moment.. the Suffragettes have taken up the study of jujitsu,we shall cease to read of their frantic struggles in the arms of giant constables....
Edith teaches WSPU
Edith was just 4ft 11 tall
Edith Garrud 1872-1971
"In proportion as the Suffragettes increase in number and in power, so also do the JU-JUTSUFFRAGETTES"
Health & Safety July 1910
The campaign was so important that the
suffragettes were represented at the
2012 Olympic Opening Ceremony
An Olympic Tribute
Faced with the practice of hunger striking by jailed Suffragette leaders, the government responded with the so-called “Cat and Mouse Act“; an unprecedented amendment to the law that allowed prisons to deal with starving prisoners without resorting to the highly controversial methods of forced feeding.
Under the new Act, a starving suffragette could be released from jail, allowed time on the outside to recover her health, and then be re-arrested on the original charge.
Edith with children Sybil and Owen. She also had another son John.
Owen was killed on the Western Front in 1918. John and Sybil survived her
International Women's Day
The walk supports leading overseas development charity CARE International UK’s Walk In Her Shoes campaign. The campaign invited UK women to ‘walk in the shoes’ of women and girls across Africa who must walk for many miles every day to collect water for their families
Sherlock Holmes appears to die after tumbling over Switzerland's Reichenbach Falls in a final battle with his nemesis, Professor Moriarty
When Conan Doyle resurrected Sherlock Holmes he explains , that he escaped Moriarty's clutches on the edge of the falls through " 'Baritsu,' or the Japanese system of wrestling."
Beginning in 1908 Edith began to offer self-defense classes only open to Suffragettes. Although the militancy and violence of the Suffragette campaign is well known , there has been less recognition of the extreme physical and verbal attacks they suffered from largely hostile crowds of men.
Non Violence Violence
Millicent Fawcett believed in peaceful protest. She felt that any violence or trouble would persuade men that women could not be trusted to have the right to vote. Her game plan was patience and logical arguments.
In 1890, she was elected President of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) which was the largest group campaigning for women to receive the vote.
Fawcett and the NUWSS remained committed to achieving the vote through constitutional means and argued that militancy was counter-productive. Although, Fawcett admired the courage of the more militant WPSU members, she blamed the WPSU's direct action for preventing the government voting on the issue
The Suffragettes started off relatively peacefully.
It was only in 1905 that the organisation created a stir when Christabel Pankhurst and Annie Kenney interrupted a political meeting in Manchester to ask two Liberal politicians (Winston Churchill and Sir Edward Grey) if they believed women should have the right to vote.
Neither man replied. As a result, the two women got out a banner which had on it "Votes for Women" and shouted at the two politicians to answer their questions. Such actions were all but unheard of then when public speakers were usually heard in silence and listened to courteously even if you did not agree with them
Pankhurst and Kenney were thrown out of the meeting and arrested for causing an obstruction and a technical assault on a police officer.
Both women refused to pay a fine preferring to go to prison to highlight the injustice of the system as it was then.
The Suffragettes refused to bow to violence.
They burned down churches as the Church of England was against what they wanted.
They brole all the windows in Oxford Street
They chained themselves to Buckingham Palace as the Royal Family were seen to be against women having the right to vote
They hired boat sailed up the Thames and shouted abuse through loud hailers at Parliament as it sat
Many refused to pay their tax.
Politicians were attacked as they went to work.
They fire bombed the homes of Politicians
JU JITSU Suffragettes
The story of Edith Garrud
In 1913, in response to the Cat and Mouse Act the WSPU established a thirty-member, all-woman protection unit referred to as "the Bodyguard".
Edith Garrud became the trainer of the Bodyguard and taught them jujutsu and the use of Indian clubs as defensive weapons. Their lessons took place in a succession of secret locations to avoid the attention of the police.
The Bodyguard fought a number of well-publicised hand-to-hand combats with police officers who were attempting to arrest their leaders.
Many colourful stories are told of the adventures of the Bodyguard. After one window-smashing protest, Edith Garrud reminisced, she led a group of suffragettes fleeing the police through the back-alleys of London to her dojo (martial arts school).
The fugitives hid their weapons in trapdoors hidden under the mats. By the time the “bobbies” came knocking at the door, they found only a group of young women innocently practicing jujitsu.
The Battle of Glasgow
May 9, 1914
On the evening of March 9th, St Andrew’s Hall was packed to capacity with a crowd largely sympathetic to the Suffragettes’ cause.
The Bodyguard carefully surveyed the crowd from their vantage point, a semi-circle of chairs set up on the stage directly behind the speaker’s podium.
Garlands of white and purple flowers decorated the edge of the stage and banners bearing the Suffragette mottoes, “Deeds Not Words” and “Votes for Women” were strung high above them.
The Glasgow police had taken no chances, surrounding the entire hall with a cordon and also stationing 50 constables in the basement. The atmosphere was tense, even more so when the appointed hour of 8.00 came and went with no sign of Mrs. Pankhurst.
Many members of the audience doubted that she could possibly break through the cordon, no matter how many Bodyguards she might have to help her.
Thus, when she suddenly appeared on the stage, the effect was like magic; though, as with the most apparently sophisticated illusions, the principle was simple misdirection
After spreading a rumour that she would attempt to breach the cordon, she had in fact arrived at the hall early and in disguise, paid for her ticket like any other member of the public, and taken a seat close to the platform.
I have kept my promise and in spite of his Majesty’s Government I am here tonight.
Very few people in this audience, very few people in this country, know how much of the nation’s money is being spent to silence women. But the wit and ingenuity of women is overcoming the power and money of the Government!
My text is – equal justice for men and women, equal political justice, equal legal justice, equal industrial justice and equal social justice!
That was as far as she got before being interrupted by the heavy tread of police boots, as the squadron in the basement made their way upstairs to the hall.
Just as the helmeted head of the lead constable, a giant of a man, appeared in the doorway,
Janie Allen, a Scottish Bodyguard who was wearing an elegant black evening gown, stood up from her seat, drew a pistol and fired it straight at his chest.
There was a deafening blast and the constable fell back into his colleagues, believing that he had been shot – but in fact, the pistol was loaded with blanks.
As the startled and angry police struggled to climb past the panicked giant in the doorway, the Bodyguard pulled out their Indian clubs and took up a defensive formation around Mrs. Pankhurst, who continued to speak over the commotion.
The police finally broke through onto the stage and a fearsome fight took place; 25 women armed with Indian clubs and jujitsu vs. 50 truncheon-wielding police constables
Why did they resort to Violence?
The Suffragettes had existed since 1903, but the first 'official' violent Suffragette incident occurred in 1909, when Mrs Bouvier and a number of others threw stones at the Home Office windows.
She wrote in the Suffragettes magazine Votes for Women:
'We had decided that the time for political arguments was thoroughly exhausted, and we made up our minds that the time for militant action had arrived. We decided to wait till 9 o'clock , when we could be sure that the peaceful deputation headed by Mrs Pankhurst had been arrested, then we determined to show by our action what we thought of the Prime Minister in refusing these ladies admission to the House of Commons.
That was our motive for throwing stones at the windows.
Violence Works !!
'The argument of the broken pane is the most valuable argument in modern politics'.
'Everyone seems to agree upon the necessity of putting
a stop to Suffragist outrages, but no one seems certain how to do so.
There are two, only two ways in which this can be done.
1. Kill every woman in the United Kingdom .
2. Give women the vote.
Yours Truly Bertha Brewster
Letter Daily Telegraph 1913
Three Conciliation bills were put before the House of Commons, one each year in 1910, 1911 and in 1912 which would extend the right of women to vote in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to around 1,000,500 wealthy, property-owning women.
While the Liberal government of H. H. Asquith supported this, a number of backbenchers, both Conservatives and Liberals, did not support the bill for fear that it would damage their parties’ success in general elections.
Some pro-suffrage groups rejected the Bills because they gave the vote to only some women; some Members of Parliament rejected them because did not want any women to receive this right !¬
Liberals also opposed the Bill because they believed that the 1 million women who would be allowed to vote would be Conservative voters so it would not be in the Liberals' interests to pass the Bill.
Pandemonium now reigned in the hall. Several plain-clothes detectives, who had been hiding in the crowd, attempted to blindside the Bodyguard by climbing onto the platform, but were repelled by a barrier of barbed wire that had been hidden in the floral garlands decorating the edge of the stage !
Eventually, the constables overwhelmed the Bodyguard resistance and hauled Mrs. Pankhurst off to a waiting police cab, her clothes torn to shreds during the struggle.
Afterwards the crowd marched to the Central Police Station in St. Andrew’s Square, forming a mob of protestors that was estimated to include some 4,000 people, chanting their support for Mrs. Pankhurst until they were dispersed by police on foot and horseback.
William and Edith took over a ju-Jitsu school in Golden Square Soho.
She was keen to establish her belief in the superiority of the trained feminine mind over the 'untutored masculine strength. In May 1909 William and Edith were asked to give a demonstration at the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU)
At the last minute William was taken ill. Edith did not normally do any of the speaking at these exhibitions. However Emily Pankhurst encouraged her to deliver the full exhibition.
These exhibitions were fantastically popular as they included a staged fight in which little Edith would throw over a large burly 'policeman'
The long journey to the Vote
1832 The Great Reform Act
The passing of the Act enfranchising "male persons" only. It has been argued that it was the inclusion of the word "male", thus providing the first statutory bar to women voting.
James Mill the world famous economist had stated:
“...all those individuals whose interests are indisputably included in those of other individuals may be struck off without any inconvenience ... In this light also women may be regarded, the interests of almost all of whom are involved in that of their fathers or in that of their husbands.
the Representation of the People Act was passed, enfranchising women over the age of 30 who met minimum property qualifications
The Representation of the People Act 1928 extended the voting franchise to all women over the age of 21.
in other words on the same terms as men!
Voting Age reduced to 18
On a sunny Saturday in June 2012, around 70 people congregated around the steps of a house in a smart square in London to celebrate the life of a brave woman who had once lived there.
Edith Margaret Garrud, the jujitsu trainer of the Bodyguard corps of the British Suffragette movement circa 1910-1913.
Two of the people present had known Edith Garrud; her grand daughters Jenny Cooper and Sybil Evans.
To them, she was just Nana.
As Mrs. Pankhurst had predicted, her arrest at St. Andrew’s Hall roused her supporters to a new pitch. The next day, a Suffragette named Mary Richardson protested the arrest by taking a meat cleaver to the Rokeby Venus, a famous and very valuable painting hanging in London’s National Art Gallery, later saying:
I have tried to destroy the picture of the most beautiful woman in mythological history as a protest against the Government for destroying Mrs. Pankhurst, who is the most beautiful character in modern history.
Richardson had arrived at the gallery at about ten in morning and for about two hours she appeared to innocently wander around the building making occasional sketches of the paintings. No one noticed that she had also brought along a narrow butcher’s meat cleaver which was hidden from view up her sleeve held there by a chain of safety pins. She later wrote: “All I had to do was release the last one and take out my chopper and go..bang!”
Richardson like a number of middle- and upper-class suffragettes turned to fascism. She became the head of the Women's section of the British Union of Fascists
Under Bartitsu is included boxing, or the use of the fist as a hitting medium, the use of the feet both in an offensive and defensive sense, the use of the walking stick as a means of self-defence.
Judo and jujitsu, which are secret styles of Japanese wrestling
In order to ensure, as far as it is possible, immunity against injury in cowardly attacks or quarrels, (one) must understand boxing in order to thoroughly appreciate the danger and rapidity of a well-directed blow, and the particular parts of the body which are scientifically attacked. The same, of course, applies to the use of the foot or the stick.
Judo and jujitsu were not designed as primary means of attack and defence against a boxer or a man who kicks you, but are only to be used after coming to close quarters, and in order to get to close quarters it is absolutely necessary to understand boxing and the use of the foot.
(from top, l to r) Michael Caine, Christopher Lee, Ian Richardson, Jeremy Brett, Roger Moore, Benedict Cumberbatch, Peter Cushing, Rupert Everett, Robert Downey Jr and (far left) Basil Rathbone.
Home Secretary 1910
Edith's involvement in the campaign intensified in 1913 because many more suffragettes need protection from the Police after being temporarily released under the Cat and Mouse Act.
The suffragettes resisted attempts to re-arrest them
The women would be out there in big dresses and hats, looking totally normal, but underneath their heavy wool dresses they'd have three inches of cardboard wrapped around their midsections to prevent them from breaking ribs when they were clubbed by police truncheons.
Under their dresses they' would be hiding Indian clubs and other weapons
The official line of the prison authorities was that all prisoners were treated alike, irrespective of their class background, a claim about which Lady Constance Lytton, an upper-middle-class spinster, became suspicious since she was released from Newcastle Prison in October 1909 after only two days - and without being forcibly fed. When some two months later two working-class women, Selina Martin and Leslie Hall, on remand in Walton Gaol, Liverpool, were forcibly fed, despite the fact that it was contrary to the law to treat remand prisoners in this way, Lytton became convinced she was right.
Disguising herself as a poor woman called Jane Warton, she joined the WSPU in her new name, protested against forcible feeding outside Walton Gaol - and was arrested. This time Jane Warton enjoyed none of the courtesies shown to Lady Lytton. Warton was held down by wardresses as the doctor inserted a four-foot-long tube down her throat. A few seconds after the tube was down, she vomited all over her hair, her clothes and the wall, yet the task continued until all the liquid had been emptied into her stomach. As the doctor left "he gave me a slap on the cheek", Constance recollected, "not violently, but, as it were, to express his contemptuous disapproval". She was forcibly fed a further seven times before her true identity was discovered and she was released. Although the point about the differential prison treatment of women from differing social backgrounds had been proved, she never fully recovered from her ordeal, but suffered a stroke in 1912 and died in 1923.
The official line of the prison authorities was that all prisoners were treated alike, irrespective of their class background, a claim about which Lady Constance Lytton, an upper-middle-class spinster, became suspicious since she was released from Newcastle Prison in October 1909 after only two days - and without being forcibly fed.
When some two months later two working-class women, Selina Martin and Leslie Hall, on remand in Walton Gaol, Liverpool, were forcibly fed, despite the fact that it was contrary to the law to treat remand prisoners in this way, Lytton became convinced she was right.
Disguising herself as a poor woman called Jane Warton, she joined the WSPU in her new name, protested against forcible feeding outside Walton Gaol - and was arrested.
This time Jane Warton enjoyed none of the courtesies shown to Lady Lytton. Warton was held down by wardresses as the doctor inserted a four-foot-long tube down her throat. A few seconds after the tube was down, she vomited all over her hair, her clothes and the wall, yet the task continued until all the liquid had been emptied into her stomach.
As the doctor left "he gave me a slap on the cheek", Constance recollected, "not violently, but, as it were, to express his contemptuous disapproval". She was forcibly fed a further seven times before her true identity was discovered and she was released.
Although the point about the differential prison treatment of women from differing social backgrounds had been proved, she never fully recovered from her ordeal, but suffered a stroke in 1912 and died in 1923.
Working Class Suffragettes
Working Class Suffragettes