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DA WORLD

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Kyler Reece

on 26 November 2014

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Transcript of DA WORLD


North America (west coast)
Hawaii
Iceland
san andreas fault
Himalayas
Japan
South America (West Coast)
Bibliography
-http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/nalnd2.htm

-http://www.spring.net/geo/JohnVolos/Public/Portal/EARTH_MECHAN/11.gif

-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_earthquakes_in_California

-http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001439.html

The Himalayan mountains are caused by the convergence of the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian plates. The Himalayan mountains are fold mountains.
Hawaii is geologically a unique place on earth because it is caused by a 'hot spot'.

There are a few 'hot spots' on earth and the one under Hawaii is right in the middle of the largest crustal plates on Earth - the Pacific Plate.
1932 June 6 08:44 00:44 Cape Mendocino 6.4 1 40.75°N 124.50°W 1932 Eureka earthquake [25]
1933 March 10 (local)
March 11 (UTC) 01:54 17:54 Long Beach 6.3 115 33.6°N 118.0°W 1933 Long Beach earthquake [26]
1937 March 25 16:49 08:49 Anza, Hemet, and Palm Springs 5.6 33.4°N 116.26°W [27]
1940 May 18 (local)
May 19 (UTC) 04:36 20:36 Imperial Valley 6.9 9 32.733°N 115.5°W 1940 El Centro earthquake [28]
1942 October 21 16:22 09:22 Fish Creek Mountains 6.6 32.97°N 116.00°W 1942 Fish Creek Mountains earthquake [29]
1947 April 10 15:58 07:58 Newberry Springs 6.5 34.98°N 116.55°W 1947 Manix earthquake [30]
1948 December 4 23:43 15:43 near Desert Hot Springs 6.5 33.93°N 116.38°W 1948 Desert Hot Springs earthquake [31]
1952 July 21 11:52 04:52 Kern County 7.3 12 35.00°N 119.02°W 1952 Kern County earthquake [32]
1954 March 19 09:54 01:54 west of Salton City 6.4 33.28°N 116.18°W 1954 Arroyo Salada earthquake [33]
1954 December 21 19:56 11:56 Cape Mendocino 6.5 1 40.78°N 124.17°W 1954 Eureka earthquake [34]
1957 March 22 19:44 11:44 Daly City 5.3 1 37.67°N 122.48°W 1957 Daly City earthquake [35]
1968 April 8 (local)
April 9 (UTC) 02:28 18:28 Ocotillo Wells 6.5 33.19°N 116.13°W 1968 Borrego Mountain earthquake [36]
1969 October 1 (local)
October 2 (UTC) 21:56 04:56 Santa Rosa, California 5.6 1 38.47°N 122.69°W 1969 Santa Rosa earthquakes [37]
1969 October 1 (local)
October 2 (UTC) 23:19 06:19 Santa Rosa, California 5.7 38.46°N 122.69°W 1969 Santa Rosa earthquakes [37]
1971 February 9 14:01 06:01 San Fernando 6.4 65 34.4°N 118.4°W 1971 San Fernando earthquake [38]
1979 October 15 23:16 16:16 Imperial Valley 6.5 32.63°N 115.32°W 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake [39]
1980 January 24 19:00 11:00 Livermore 5.8 37.86°N 121.82°W 1980 Livermore earthquake [40]
1980 May 25-27 16:33, 16:49, 19:44, 14:40 09:33, 09:49, 12:44, 07:40 Mammoth Lakes 6.2, 5.9, 5.9, 6.0 37.59°N 118.85°W, 37.49°N 118.83°W 1980 Mammoth Lakes earthquake swarm [41]
1980 November 8 10:27 02:27 Cape Mendocino 7.3 41.11°N 124.3°W 1980 Humboldt County earthquake [42]
1983 May 2 22:42 15:42 Coalinga 6.4 1 36.23°N 120.31°W 1983 Coalinga earthquake [43]
1984 April 24 21:15 13:15 Morgan Hill 6.2 37.31°N 121.68°W 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake [43]
1986 July 8 09:20 02:20 North Palm Springs 6.0 34.0°N 116.60°W 1986 North Palm Springs earthquake [44]
1986 July 13 13:47 06:47 Oceanside 5.8 1 33.02°N 117.79°W 1986 Oceanside earthquake [44]
1986 July 21 14:42 07:42 Chalfant Valley 6.2 37.54°N 118.45°W 1986 Chalfant Valley earthquake [44]
1987 October 1 14:42 07:42 Whittier Narrows 5.9 8 34.06°N 118.08°W 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake [45]
1987 November 23 (local)
November 24 (UTC) 01:54 17:54 Elmore Desert Ranch 6.0 33.08°N 115.78°W 1987 Elmore Ranch earthquake (related to the Superstition Hills earthquake) [46]
1987 November 24 14:15 06:15 Superstition Hills 6.5 33.01°N 115.84°W 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake [46]
1989 August 8 08:13 01:13 Santa Cruz Mountains 5.4 1 37.13°N 121.95°W 1989 Lake Elsman earthquake [47]
1989 Oct. 17, San Francisco Bay area: earthquake measuring 7.1 in magnitude killed 67 and injured over 3,000. Over 100,000 buildings damaged or destroyed.
October 18 (UTC) 00:04 17:04 Santa Cruz Mountains 6.9 63 37.0°N 121.9°W 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake [48]
1991 June 28 14:43 07:43 Sierra Madre 5.6 2 34.26°N 118.00°W 1991 Sierra Madre earthquake [49][50]
1992 April 22 (local)
April 23 (UTC) 04:50 21:50 Joshua Tree 6.1 33.96°N 116.32°W 1992 Joshua Tree earthquake [51]
1992 April 25 18:06 11:06 Cape Mendocino 7.2 40.33°N 124.23°W 1992 Cape Mendocino earthquakes [43]
1992 June 28 11:57 04:57 Landers 7.3 3 34.18°N 116.53°W 1992 Landers earthquake [52]
1992 June 28 15:05 08:05 Big Bear 6.5 34.29°N 116.82°W 1992 Big Bear earthquake [53]
1993 May 17 23:20 16:20 Eureka Valley 6.0 37.146°N 117.824°W 1993 Eureka Valley earthquake [54]
1994 Jan. 17, San Fernando Valley, Calif.: earthquake, 6.6 in magnitude, killed 61 and injured over 8,000. Damage estimated at $13–20 billion
1999 October 16 09:46 02:46 Hector Mine 7.2 34.51°N 116.43°W 1999 Hector Mine earthquake [55]
2000 September 3 08:36 01:36 Yountville 5.2 38.38°N 122.41°W 2000 Yountville earthquake [56][57]
2003 December 22 19:15 11:15 San Simeon 6.6 2 35.71°N 121.10°W 2003 San Simeon earthquake [58]
2004 September 28 17:15 10:15 Parkfield 6.0 35.82°N 120.37°W 2004 Parkfield earthquake [59]
2005 June 12 15:41 08:41 Anza 5.2 33.53°N 116.58°W 2005 Anza earthquake [60]
2005 June 14 (PDT)
June 15 (UTC) 02:50 19:50 Cape Mendocino 7.2 41.28°N 125.98°W A tsunami warning and a 26 cm (10 in) wave at Crescent City. 6,000 (est) evacuated [61][62][63][64]
2007 October 30 (local)
October 31 (UTC) 03:04 20:04 Alum Rock 5.6 37.43°N 121.77°W 2007 Alum Rock earthquake [65]
2008 July 29 18:42 11:42 Chino Hills 5.4 33.96°N 117.76°W 2008 Chino Hills earthquake [66]
2009 May 17 (PDT)
May 18 (UTC) 03:39 20:39 Inglewood 4.7 33.94°N 118.35°W 2009 Inglewood earthquake [67]
2010 January 9 (PST)
January 10 (UTC) 00:27 16:27 Cape Mendocino 6.5 40.65°N 124.76°W 2010 Eureka earthquake [68]
2010 March 16 11:04 04:04 Pico Rivera 4.4 33.992°N 118.082°W 2010 Pico Rivera earthquake [69]
2010 April 4 22:40 15:40 northern Baja California 7.2 3 32.128°N 115.303°W 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake [70]
2010 June 14 (PDT)
June 15 (UTC) 04:26 21:26 Ocotillo 5.7 32.698°N 115.924°W 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah aftershock [71]
2010 July 7 23:53 16:53 Borrego Springs 5.4 33.42°N 116.48°W 2010 Borrego Springs earthquake [72]
2012 August 26 04:30 Brawley 4.9, 5.3, 5.4 2012 Brawley earthquake Swarm [73]
2012 December 14 10:36 02:36 Off the southwest coast of Catalina Island 6.3 31.2°N 119.6°W 2012 Avalon earthquake [74]
2013 May 23 (PDT)
May 24 (UTC) 03:47 20:47 near Lake Almanor, Greenville 5.7 40.190°N 121.061°W (swarm) USGS
2014 March 9 (PDT)
March 10 (UTC) 05:18 21:18 Cape Mendocino 6.8 40.821°N 125.128°W [75]
2014 March 17 (PDT)
March 17 (UTC) 13:25 06:25 Westwood, Los Angeles 4.4 34.135°N 118.486°W [76]
2014 March 28 (PDT)
March 29 (UTC) 04:09 21:09 La Habra 5.1 33.919°N 117.944°W Possible Puente Hills Fault partial rupture [77][78]
2014 August 24 10:20 03:20 6km NW of American Canyon, California 6.0 1 38.214°N 122.319°W 2014 South Napa earthquake [79][80]

The west coast of North america is a convergent boundary.

This plateau region of eastern and northern Canada and the Great Lakes area of North America mainly includes rough and rocky surfaces, and large areas of coniferous forests. A mountain range stretching from northeastern California across Oregon and Washington. Major peaks included Mt. Hood, Mt. Ranier, and Mt. St. Helens.

Mountains run along the pacific coastlines of the west coast of north america, from British Columbia running through California.

The coastal areas include bayous, deltas, marshes, mud flats and swamps.

In North America the Western Continental Divide is an imaginary line that sits atop a continuous ridge of mountain summits that divide the continent into two main drainage areas.
http://www.hitt-initiative.org/mla/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/himalayas-side-view.jpg.
Bibliography
Rift Valley (Africa)
The Rift Valley of Africa is a convergent boundary

The African Rift valley is a place where the earth's tectonic forces are presently trying to create new plates by splitting apart old ones. A rift is like a fracture in the earths crust that widens over time.

The Western Rift Valley is also known as the Albertine Rift and features some of the highest mountain ranges in Africa. They include the Virunga Mountains, Mitumba Mountains, and Ruwenzori Range and also the Rift Valley; which contains some of the deepest lakes in the world.

There are many surrounding volcanoes of the African rift valley, such as Dallol, Gada Ale, Alu | Dalaffilla, Borale Ale, Erta Ale, Ale Bagu, Hayli Gubbi, Borawli, North Island, Central Island, South Island, The Barrier, Marsabit, Namarunu, Segererua Plateau, and many more.
Japan is a subduction zone: Volcanoes, earth quakes, and mountain building are major characteristics of the japanese islands in an active continental margin which are closely related to plate subduction.
Based on the planet's history of tectonic activity, where do you think the 'best' place to live on this planet might be?
Video on the African Rift valley
http://natgeotv.com.au/videos/geologic-journey/african-rift-the-great-rift-valley-E32C73C8.aspx
*Plate Boundary
*Landform
kysown
The Kunlun is an active volcano, and the last eruption was recorded in 1951 as a central vent explosion.The Kunlun volcanlo is a Pyroclastic cone(s) volcano. Volcanic activity from this region caused a magnitude 7.2 earthquake on March 21, 2008, but no eruption was reported.he 'Great Kashmir Earthquake of 2005' that killed over 87,000 people (about 86,000 people in the Pakistan side and 1,350 in the Indian side of Kashmir), injured at least 100,000 people

VOLCANOES!!
Bibliography
-http://www.sanhujinka.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/divergent-boundary-diagram.jpg
-http://geology.com/articles/east-africa-rift.shtml
-http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/africa.html
-http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/plate_tectonics.aspx
-
Video describing convergent boundary
Bibliography:
-https://www.you tube.com/watch?v=pVqOfTNzWN4
-http://geology.com/usgs/hawaiian-hot-spot/hawaiian-hot-spot-map.gif
-http://www.marinebio.net/marinescience/02ocean/hwimg/crst16bno[1].jpg
-http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/63444
-http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/64087
Iceland is a divergent boundary.

Convection currents moving in opposite directions (caused by the intense heat of the Earth's interior) in the mantle move two plates apart. As these plates move apart this leaves cracks and fissures, lines of weakness that allows magma from the mantle to escapes from the highly pressurized interior of the planet. This magma fills the gap and eventually erupts onto the surface and cools as new land.

The mountain Esja (914 m (2,999 ft)) often called Esjan ("the Esja") is situated in the south-west of Iceland, about 10 km to the north of Iceland's capital city Reykjavík. Esja is not a single mountain, but a volcanic mountain range, made from basalt and tuff-stone.

Some of the volcanoes located in Iceland are Kolbeinsey Ridge, Tjörnes Fracture Zone, Theistareykjarbunga, Krafla, Fremrinamur, Askja, Lysuhóll, Helgrindur, Ljósufjöll, Snaefellsjökull, Hofsjökull volcano, Hveravellir, Langjökull, Tungnafellsjökull, Kverkfjöll, Kerlingarfjöll, Bardarbunga, Prestahnukur, Loki-Fögrufjöll volcano, Grímsvötn, Geysir, Esjufjöll, Hengill, Hrómundartindur, Grímsnes, Grensdalur, Öraefajökull, Hekla, Torfajökull, Krísuvík, Brennisteinsfjöll, Vatnafjöll, Reykjanes, Tindfjallajökull, Katla, Eyafjallajökull, Vestmannaeyjar (Heimaey + Surtsey)
erupted volcano
video explaining how the Himalayan mountains formed
Koolau Range, mountains paralleling for 37 miles (60 km) the eastern coast of Oahu island, Hawaii, U.S. The range was formed by volcanic eruptions and has an average width of 13 miles (21 km).
dgfdf
Year 1902 – 1904. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1905 – 1906. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1908 – 1908. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1910. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano. Ash fall is documented from June to November in east of Iceland.

Year 1913. Eruption east of Hekla volcano in a area named Mundafell / Lambafell.

Year 1918. Katla volcano erupts. This eruption started 12. October and did finish 5. November. The ash cloud did go up to 14,3 km high into the air. A large glacier flood did go down Mýrdalssand. People was in danger. A lot of live stock got lost.

Year 1921. Askja volcano. Small fissure eruption.

Year 1922. Askja volcano. Small fissure eruption.

Year 1922. Grímsfjall volcano started erupting in September. This eruption did finish in less then a month.

Year 1923. Askja volcano. Small fissure eruption.

Year 1923. Grímsfjall volcano eruption. Small eruption.

Year 1926. Askja volcano eruption. Creates a small island in Öskjuvatni lake.

Year 1926. Around Eldey. Boiling ocean reported for few hours.

Year 1927. Around Esjufjöll volcano. Minor eruption. A glacier flood from Breiðarmerkujökli glacier that killed one person.

Year 1929. Askja volcano eruption possible. But poorly documented and uncertain because of that.

Year 1929. Eruption in Kverkfjöll volcano. The volcano eruption was observed during the summer.

Year 1933. Minor eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1934. Eruption started in the middle March and lasted until middle of April in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1938. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano. Was on the north part of the caldera. But did not break trough the glacier ice.

Year 1941. Eruption might have taken place in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1945. Eruption might have taken place in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1947 – 1948. A eruption starts in Hekla volcano on the 29. March. The ash cloud goes up to 30 km. The ash cloud goes to the south. The lava flow had the size of 0,8 km³. Most of it did go the west and south-west from Axlargýg.

Year 1954. Possible eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1955. Possible small eruption in Katla volcano. Small glacier flood from Mýrdalsjökli.

Year 1961. A fissure eruption started on the 26. October in Askja volcano on a 300 meter long fissure.

Year 1963 – 1967. Eruption in the Vestmannaeyjar volcano system. Surtsey island is formed south of Geirfulgaskeri. Few smaller island are also created. But disappear quickly.

Year 1970. Eruption in Hekla volcano started on 5. May. Most of the ash fall was to NNW and into Húnavatnssýslur. The eruption the mountain only lasted for few days. But the eruption in Skjólkvíum the eruption lasted for about two months.

Year 1973. A volcano eruption starts in Vestmanneyjar volcano. A 1600 meter long fissure opens close to the town of Vestmanneyjar. About the third of the town did go under lava and about 400 houses where destroyed. This created Eldfell and Heimaey did grow to the east.

Year 1975. Krafla volcano eruption starts on 20. December. A short fissure opens on close to Leirhnjúk.

Year 1977. Krafla volcano eruption starts on 27. April, it ends on 29. April.

Year 1977. Krafla volcano erupts. Eruption starts on 8. September, it ends on 9. September.

Year 1980. Krafla volcano erupts on 16. March.

Year 1980. Krafla volcano erupts. Volcano erupts starts on 10. July, it sends on 18. July.

Year 1980. Krafla volcano erupts. The eruption starts on 18. October and is to 23. October.

Year 1981. Krafla volcano erupts. The eruption starts on 30. January and it sends on 4. February.

Year 1981. Krafla volcano erupts. The eruption starts on 18. November. It ends on 23. November.

Year 1980 – 1981. Hekla volcano erupts. The eruption started on 17. August, it lasted until 20. August. The eruption did resume on the 9. April the year later (1981) and did most likely end on 18. April.

Year 1983. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano in the end of May.

Year 1984. A most likely a minor eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1984. Eruption in Krafla volcano. It starts on 4. September and it sends 18. September.

Year 1985. Most likely a minor eruption in Lokahrygg in Vatnajökli glacier. Harmonic tremor is recorded and a caldera forms in the glacier.

Year 1991. Eruption starts in Hekla volcano on the 17. January. The power of the eruption quickly vanish. One crater remains active until 17. March. Little ash was in this eruption. Considerable amount of lava did flow south of Hekla volcano.

Year 1996. Eruption on a fissure between Bárðarbunga volcano and Grímsfjall volcano. This eruption started on 30. September on a 4 to 5 km long fissure. This eruption lasted until 30. October. The earthquake swarm did indicate the dike intrusion from Bárðarbunga volcano. Water that was melted in this eruption did flow to Grímsvatna in Grímsfjall volcano. The drain did happen on 5. November.

Year 1998. Volcano eruption in Grímsfjall volcano did start on 18. December. It lasted until 28. December.

Year 1999. Small volcano eruption takes place in Sólheimajökli glacier in the Katla volcano. Small glacier flood follows. The eruption does not break the surface of the glacier ice. This happens on 17. July. Earthquake swarm follows this event with largest earthquakes that are up to ML3.0 in size. Harmonic tremor is seen on seismometers around Katla volcano.

Year 2000. Eruption did start in Hekla volcano on the 26. February. It lasted until 8. March. Little ash did follow this eruption. Lava flow was not considerable large.

Year 2004. Eruption did start in Grímsfjall volcano on 4. November.

Year 2010. Eruption starts in Eyjafjallajökull volcano after a large earthquake swarm in it. The first phase of the eruption takes place in Fimmvörðuhálsi when a eruption starts there on 20. March. A eruption starts in the main crater on Eyjafjallajökull volcano on 14. April. A ash clouds follows it along with a glacier flood that goes down Markarfljót. Some damage takes place in this eruption the nearby area of Eyjafjallajökull volcano.

Year 2011. Largest eruption in Grímsfjall volcano did start on May 21. It did end on May 25. The ash cloud was the largest one in the past 140 years. No glacier flood did take place in this eruption. The eruption started around 17:30 UTC. But the first steam cloud was not observed until around 18:32 UTC. The ash cloud did reach the hight of 20 km. But did soon drop down to 10 km. Three days after the eruption did start it did loose power at fast rate and was over on May 25.

Year 2011: Katla volcano had a subglacier eruption. This is the second eruption of the year 2011 in Iceland. A glacier flood followed this minor eruption of Katla volcano. The eruption ended on 9 July, 2011 it is believed.

Year 2011: Hamarinn volcano might have (most likely) had a eruption week after Katla volcano. Glacier flood followed this minor eruption of Hamarinn volcano. The eruption ended 13 July it is believed.

Mount Esja
Volcano history:
1 jan 1790, Kilauea Eruption
18 May 1924, Kilauea Eruption
1 jun 1950, Mauna Loa Eruption
1 dec 1959, Kilauea Iki Crater Eruption
27 jan 1960, Kapoho Eruption of Kilauea
3 jan 1983, Pu'u O o- Kupaianaha Eruptions
6 Apr 1984, Mauana Loa Eruption
Bibliography:
-http://www.kids-fun-science.com/images/pt5-divergent-boundary-usgs.gif
-https://www.google.ca/search?q=mountain+range+of+iceland&safe=active&gws_rd=ssl
-http://www.coolgeography.co.uk/A-level/AQA/Year%2013/Plate%20Tectonics/Plate%20tectonics/Margins%20and%20landforms.htm
-http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/iceland.html
-http://www.jonfr.com/volcano/?p=765
-http://cache3.asset-cache.net/gc/143448752-mount-esja-gettyimages.jpg?v=1&c=IWSAsset&k=2&d=Zf5XzR1iIcCaeA5aXQNrNgzz8Z9C6jAfNxv5lxXjRiI%3D

Earthquake History:
6 Jun 1823, south flank of Kilauea, hawaii - M 7.0 Earthquake
29 Mar 1868, Ka'u district, island of Hawaii - M 7.0 Earthquake
3 Apr 1868, Ka'u District, island of Hawaii - M 7.9 Earthquake
2 Feb 1871, Lanai, Hawaii - 6.8 Earthquake
6 Oct 1929, Holualoa, Hawaii - M 6.5 Earthquake
23 Jan 1938, Maui, Hawaii - M 6.8 Earthquake
26 Apr 1973, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii - M 6.2 Earthquake
29 Nov 1975, Kalapana, Hawaii - M 7.2 Earthquake
16 Nov 1983, Kaoiki, Hawaii - M 6.7 Earthquake
27 Aug 2003, Volcano, Hawaii - M 4.7 Earthquake
15 Jul 2005, Hawaii region, Hawaii- M 5.3 Earthquake
17 Jul 2005, Hawaii region, Hawaii - M 5.3 Earthquake
15 Oct 2006, Hawaii region, hawaii - M 6.7 Earthquake
14 Aug 2007, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii - M 5.4 Earthquake
14 Apr 2009, Island of Hawaii, Hawaii - M 5.2 Earthquake
erupting volcano
erupting Volcano:
aftermath of an earthquake
The best place to live would be central America because there is a less chance of tragedies.
Full transcript