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Controlling Chagas Disease in the Southern Cone of America

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Jasmine Parekh

on 9 March 2015

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Transcript of Controlling Chagas Disease in the Southern Cone of America

Controlling Chagas Disease in the Southern Cone of South America
Step 4: Analysis
Poor socioeconomic status
Widespread of infected people
Large rural areas that are hard to navigate
No access to proper technology
There is
NO VACCINE
or solution to the Chagas disease
PREVENTION
is the most important step
Step 2: Continued
Getting rid of insect vector: cost effective with new insecticides
Organized spray teams to treat each house in the municipalities
Canisters made available to households
Universal screening for infected blood
In time, South America had favorable economic and institutional environments
International support by all the countries who supported PAHO and WHO
Step 1: Gather Information
Step 1: Continued
Step 2: Analyze Present Situation
Economic
Group Members:
Ariel Alacar, Kathryn Allan, Joshua Blanco,
Kasey Cachola, Elsie Dominguez, Monica Flamenco,
Miguel Lima, Stephanie Munoz, Raphael Natividad, Jasmine Parekh, Aria Sherazee, Fiona Will

Step 5: Make Recommendations
Use of Drugs
Benznidazole & Nifurtimoz to attack and kill the T. cruzi parasite
Downsides:
Only affective in newly infected patients
40%
of patients are exposed to sever side affects
The longer the infection, the smaller the impact on the effectiveness of the treatment, decreasing success rates
In 2008, WHO claimed Chagas would be eliminated. The best alternate solution is
preventive measures
.
Step 5: Continued
Other preventative recommendations
Home improvement to prevent vector infestation
Use of bed nets
Hygiene practices in food preparation, transportation, storage & consumptions
Screening of blood donors
Testing of organ, tissue, or cell donors and receivers
Screening of newborns, mothers and children for early diagnosis
Step: 6
Step 4: Continued
1991: Attempts from a functionalist perspective included a program, "The Southern Cone Initiative to Control/Eliminate Chagas Disease"
Sprayed millions of homes with toxic spray to kill the parasite
Step 6: Develop Action Plan
Strengthen world surveillance of disease epidemiology
Prevent transmission by improving transfusion blood and organ transplantation
Promote better diagnostic testing and screening
Research and treat specific areas of highly affected populations
Provide powerful public health programs including trained professionals and volunteers
Focus on vector control
Step 6: Continued
Step: 7 Finalize & Report
Creation of Southern Cone Initiative to Control/Eliminate Chagas Disease = successful
Promote sanitation & personal hygiene
Improve blood & mother-to-child screening
Emphasize & educate on comprehension of their health and the health system
Question 2
Works Cited
Southern Cone
Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, Peru
The leading cause of cardiovascular disease in Latin America, causing irreversible damage to the heart and other organs
(American Trypanosomiasis)
Chagas disease is an inflammatory, infectious disease
caused by a

parasite
found in the feces of the
Triatomine
(reduviid, kissing)
bug
.
Live indoors, cracks and holes of substandard housing, or in a variety of outdoor settings
Parasites enter the blood stream when bites are rubbed or scratched
Most serious parasitic issue in Latin America

16-18 million infected
Highest affect in rural areas of South America
Those who do not have "adequate" housing or shelter are more exposed to the parasitic disease
Answer to Question 2
Benznidazole & Nifurtimoz
attack and kill
the T. cruzi parasite
Only affective in newly infected patients
40% of patients are exposed to severe side affects
The longer the person has been infected will impact the effectiveness of the treatment and will cause a decrease in its success
Chagas. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://www.dndi.org/diseases-projects/diseases/chagas.html
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs340/en/
Chagas disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2015, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001372.htm
SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, 2015, from http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0037-86822008000200012&script=sci_arttext
Summary review of the 2011 southern hemisphere winter influenza season. (n.d.). Retrieved February 24, 2015, from http://www.who.int/influenza/surveillance_monitoring/2011_GIP_surveillance_seasonal_review/en/

Symptoms
Initial, acute phase
High number of parasites circulate in the blood
Most cases, symptoms are absent or mild
Parasites are hidden mainly in the heart and digestive muscle
Up to 30% of patients suffer from cardiac disorders & 10% suffer from digestive, neurological or mixed alterations
Can lead to sudden death of heart failure in later years
Chronic phase
Large, expensive methods
to eliminated the disease prior to getting hold of inexpensive insecticides for killing bug
Demographic
Not all restricted to one area but the vector lived in two major demographic areas:
Step 2: Continued
Regulatory
Each country
finances and manages its own program
to reduce the spread of Chagas Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
Service Area
Professional treatment of houses with long-lasting pyrethroid insecticides, ministries of health
Mission of the Organization
To eliminate the spread and reduce the vector of Chagas disease (INCOSUR)
Strengths
Weaknesses
Large areas to cover vector from spreading
Easily infected
Long term symptomatic treatments of Chagas required specialized clinics
In beginning, poor efforts were made:
Enclosed houses in canvas tents and filled them with cyanide gas
Some insecticides ineffective
Unilateral approach to control disease was ineffective
Proven to have an unsteady approach to fight the disease as new diseases began spreading
Step 2: Continued
Step 3: Finalize Issue Identification
Eliminate Problems
No cure, especially for the chronic diseases one would later develop
One could eliminate the vector of Chagas Disease and prevent the disease overall

Identify Causes
Parasites infest the "kissing bug" and the "kissing bug" infects other organisms by contact.

Step 3: Continued
Problems
Socioeconomic status
wide spread of the people infected
large rural areas that are hard to navigate to
inefficient ways to fumigate/kill the "kissing bug"
not having the proper technology to screen for infected blood
Opportunities
New cheaper insecticides
New organizations specializing in the elimination of the Chagas disease (INCOSUR)
International support from PAHO and WHO proving them with necessary technology and administrative support
INCOSUR organized teams to spray houses with insecticides to eliminate the "kissing bug"
What is Chagas disease?
Includes fever, headache, pallor, enlarged lymph glands, muscle pain, difficulty in breathing, swelling, and abdominal or chest pain
Southern Cone of South America (main affected area)
Northern Central America/Mexico
The Molecule of the Drug
Benizadole and Nifurtimox have no flaws and are long lasting affective drugs to help those with the Chagas Disease.
True or False
False
Group 12
Timeline
Question 1
How many people have been infected by the Chagas Disease in the Southern Cone?
a. 5 - 7 million
b. 16 - 18 million
c. 20 - 22 million
d. 8 - 10 million
Answer to Question 1
How many people have been infected by the Chagas Disease in the Southern Cone?
b. 16 - 18 million
a. 5 - 7 million
c. 20 - 22 million
d. 8 - 10 million
Thank you for listening!
- Group 12
Table of Responsibilities
Kathyrn & Raphael -
Presenters

Monica, Stephanie, Elsie, Aria, Miguel, Joshua, & Ariel -
Researchers

Jasmine & Fiona -
Prezi Creators

Kasey -
Group Manager/Editor
Full transcript