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Human Interaction with Biomes

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on 2 March 2015

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Transcript of Human Interaction with Biomes

Human Interaction with Biomes
What you need to know!!
The clearing and felling of forests in Ireland from ancient settlers to present day

The impact of deforestation on the tropical rainforest biome of Brazil

Intensive agricultural practices and the impact they have on the tropical rainforest biome of Brazil

Industrial development and the impact it has had on the Temperate Forest Biome of Europe

Introduction
Ecosystem
Biome
Characteristics (expand ...)
Examples

Case Study: Temperate &Tropical rainforests (Expand..)

Human activity : positive and negative impact.
Tropical Rainforest Biome
Found between: 5 degrees North & South of the equator
Exam Questions
2009
Q18
Assess how biomes have been altered by human activity.
[80 m]

2008
Q16
Examine two ways in which human activities have altered the natural characteristics of a biome that you have studied. [80 m]

2007
Q18
Assess the impact of human activity on a biome that you have studied. [80m]



A
biome
is a global ecosystem.
Each biome has a similar pattern of climate, soils, vegetation and fauna.
Biomes are usually named after their vegetation type eg. Desert Biome.

The biome I have studied is the
tropical broadleaf evergreen forest (rainforest).

Tropical rainforests are
found
between 5 degrees north and south of the equator.
Examples of the tropical rainforests can be found in the
amazon basin in Brazil and Indonesia
.
Human activity
has both a positive and negative impact on rainforests.
Amazon Rainforest Brazil
Human Interaction
Rate of felling in rainforests has increased rapidly in recent years
In
1800
there were
2.9 million
hectors
Today

1.5 million
hectares
Felling
It has got so bad that 1 and a half hectares are lost every second.

Experts believe that the last remaining rainforests will be consumed within 40 years.


There are many reasons for the clearance of rainforests:
Agriculture
Development
Commodities.
Slash and Burn
Slash & Burn
Deforestation and Logging
Mining & Construction
Iron ore & Copper are mined
Reasons for intense Agriculture
Yanomani Tribe
of the Amazon Basin
Sustainable Exploitation
Deforestation
Greatly Increased since 1970's
Why??
Demand for hardwood
Teak
Commercial Use
Farming is More profitable than
Forestry
Illegal timber felling
80%
Plywood
Brazilian Government Encourage logging
3% of economic Activity
Overpopulation is a major problem
Particularly along coastal cities of Brazil
Land was given freely to poor citizens
Trans-Amazonian Highway
Built to allow access to logging companies
New Capital: Brasilia
Population: 2.3 million
Soil Erosion
Soil erosion Increased
- Exposing Soil
Felling
Canopy Layer Removed
Tree roots bind soil togeather
Biodiversity
Sustainability
Mahogany Tree
60 years to mature
2,000 cut down a minute
Unsustainable exploitation
+15 million species of plants and animals
Pollution
'Carbon Sink'
Global Warming & Climate Change
1. Intensive Agriculture
1. Farming
Intensive agriculture needs the highest yield from the land.
Some effects are related to farming,
Soil erosion
Plant and animal habitats
Indigenous people.
Yanomai Tribe
large cattle ranches
Deforestation has taken place to make way for:
soya bean cultivation
These areas are farmed intensively by large scale MNC's
Tropical Red soils (latersols) of the biome are fast becoming exhausted & open to soil erosion as a fallow year has been abandoned.
Soils can be damaged due to the use of fertilizers and pesticides to kill all bugs around which throws the entire ecosystem out of balance, harming plants and animals.
The Brazilian government encourages larger-scale clearances for agriculture as 40 hectares of rainforests are lost every minute to agriculture use.
If this continues, it's estimated by 2050 only 40% of Brazil's rainforests will be left.
2. Soil Erosion
 Soil erosion is caused by the removal of the tree canopy (top layer of tree leaves). It can be in a case of 2-3 years a soil can lose it's fertility as it is deprived of it's foliage layer leading to a lack of humus. It is now called laterite soil as it has been baked in the sun and is useless to men.
Laterite Soil
Rich in iron oxide
Derived from a wide variety of rocks weathering under strongly oxidizing and leaching conditions. It forms in tropical and subtropical regions where the climate is humid.
3. Biodiversity
Small habitats have been destroyed to the extinction of some animals and species
Panter
Cinchona Tree
Malaria
4. Indigenous People
In Brazil, 90 tribes have been wiped out due to industrial and agricultural spread into the biome. Most were wiped out by diseases brought by man such as the Europeans to which they had no immunity, for example the common cold. The number of native tribes people in the region as been reduced to less than 250,000 in 2000 from nearly 6 million in the 1500's
Industrial Development in Europe
Temperate Forest Biome
Industrial Development
Acid Rain & increased Air &Water Pollution
 Industrial activity in Europe is the main cause of acid rain.

It is formed when emissions, such as sulfur dioxide that is released from fossil fuels, mix with rainwater forming a weak sulfuric acid.

This rain then falls as rain with a pH less than 5.6, making acidic soil.
There are many effects of acid rain on vegetation.

It can cause leaf damage that reduces it's ability to photosynthesize
It leaves the plant vulnerable and weak.
Seed germination (the growing of seeds) is reduced.
Alluminium levels in the soil increase due to acidic rain.
I t damages the tree's root hairs which affects the absorption of nutrients.
Liming
 There are also effects of acid rain on animal life.

In conclusion, biomes can be altered by human activity.

In the Brazilian rain forest, the human activities such as early settlement, and the clearance of forests, industrial development in Europe.

The felling of tropical rain forests and the intensive agricultural practices in Brazil have all helped to damage the ecosystems in the world’s forests.
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