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Transcript of Annex Five
THE DIARY OF A YOUNG GIRL
What special interests does she reveal?
•Boy friends (Peter)
What are the things that frustrate, annoy or anger her?
•How she and Margot are treated
Hitler's Axis Alliance and Timeline
What does she find inspiring, pleasant, or amusing?
•Amusing: Mrs. Van Daan’s complaints
• The Wehrmacht was the military forces group (air, ground , and navy) of Germany slightly prior and through World War 2 (1935-1945)
o Originally the Friedensheer, or “peace army,” of Germany, and eventually turned into the Vorläufige Reichswehr
o However, the Treaty of Versailles forced the army size to dwindle down to 100,000, causing Reichswehr, meaning “Defense Force,” was formed on March 23rd, 1921
- The shortage of people in the army caused only the best of the best to be able to get into the “Reichswehr,” and meant that the officers and soldiers there were top-notch quality
o Germany began to secretly build up an army inside, and outside of its country, such as with the help of the Soviet Union, from the Treaty of Rapallo in 1922 (allowing Germans to train/get supplies from Russia and vice versa)
o Germany finally began to openly disobey the rules of the treaty, such as with the official creation of the Wehrmacht, finally unifying all of its armed forces, on October 15, 1935, though the Wehrmacht had already been in existence for some time
What special aspirations does she express?
•Have more special talks with Peter
What are her fears?
•Secret Annex being found
How does Anne blend everyday matters with critical issues?
-she transitions from talking about her time with Peter to talking about the beauty of nature (page 158)
-she blends simple advice with an intense discussion about happiness (page 163)
-she talks about her feelings for Peter and then provides insight into who Peter is (page 167)
The Army, or Heer, portion of the Wehrmacht served as the infantry, where 90% of its forces were on foot, and artillery/large weaponry was dragged along horse-back
o The Heer was spread along almost all of Germany and in all parts of the warfare; from the Western side of France to the borders of the USSR
- The Heer had a lot of land to maintain, and due to poor conditions at home, they were outmaneuvered and destroyed eventually
Nazi Germany under the Hitler dictatorship was the reason why Anne and her family had to hide.
- The Air-Force, or the Luftwaffe, originally was highly effective in the war, being able to get around a massive amount of fighters for air superiority and carpet bombing techniques to strike fear and damage enemy lines
o This was coupled with the “ghost” Panzer tank division to make the Blitzkrieg, the highly mobile force that quickly overwhelmed it enemies and steam-rolled through
o However, the second-half of the war brought on advancements for the Allied air-forces, and the Luftwaffe lost its air-superiority
Nature of Government
•One person and one party to be in control of a nation
•Climate of fear
•Nazi officials in charge of all local government
•Trade unions were abolished
•Illegal to form a new political party.
o Nazi Party was only legal political party
• The Germany Navy, or the Kriegsmarine, consisted of battleships and cruisers, and also initially highly effective U-boats, which proved to be a real challenge for the Allied forces to compete against
o These U-boats were submarines that could fire a multitude of torpedoes, which could sink even the most secure Allied boats. This U-boat technique rivaled the Allied Forces Navy, which then caused the Battle of the Atlantic, or the Allied vs. German conflict in the Atlantic
- The Battle of the Atlantic lasted the entire duration of the World War 2, from 1939 to 1945, due to neither side being able to gain advantage over the other until the end of the war
o However, with Allied innovations of the sonar, radar, and breaking the Enigma code made the efficiency of the U-boats a lot smaller, and helped the Allies eventually overcome this force
Ultimately, Anne's writing flows seamlessly between common issues and complex ideas, which is part of what makes the diary so special.
What philosophical beliefs fueled its creation and operation? What were its laws and policies?
•Guided by racist and authoritarian principles
•Individual freedoms eliminated
•Volk Community (Volksgemeinschaft)
•Reichstag Fire Decree
•Policy of "coordination" (Gleichschaltung)
•Culture, economy, education, and law all under Nazi control
•Civil Service Law of April 1933
How does she get along with the other people in the hiding place? Describe Anne’s relations with her family, with the Van Daans, and with Dussel.
What was the Treaty of Versailles? What did the Treaty stipulate about the amount of military power Germany was allowed to develop?
•Imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I
•Demanded excessive reparations from the Germans
•440 Articles and numerous Annexes
•German army was limited to a maximum of 100,000 men
•Ban upon use of heavy artillery, gas, tanks and aircraft
•German navy restricted to shipping under 10,000 tons
•Ban on submarines
How do her opinions of these individuals become more nuanced to the reader?
-Anne becomes more mature, so she is able to view the other annex members in a more mature way
March 19, 1944:
- Germans occupy Hungary out of fear, thought Hungary was about to desert the Axis partnership. Germans force the regent, Admiral Miklos Horthy, to appoint a pro-German minister president.
•Admiral Miklos Horthy and Prime Minister Miklos Kallay recognized that Germany would most likely lose the war
•Kallay sought to negotiate a separate armistice for Hungary with the Allies
•German forces occupied Hungary on March 19, 1944
•Horthy was permitted to remain Regent
•Kallay was dismissed and the Germans installed General Dome Sztojay
•Sztojay committed Hungary to continuing the war effort and cooperated with the Germans in their efforts to deport the Hungarian Jews.
How are her interactions with non-relatives different than her dealings with her father, mother and sister? In what ways are they similar?
-Anne attempts to stand up for Elli and offer her advice, but she usually does not treat her family this kindly (page 163)
-Anne seems to pay more attention to non-relatives including Peter and Mrs. Van Daan (page 163)
-Anne has conflicts with her relatives as well as the non-relatives
Based on the comments she makes about various people in your assigned section, what evidence is there to make her decision to give everyone a pseudonym more understandable?
-Anne gets along well with the other annex members as opposed to other sections, but her reasons for using pseudonyms are still very clear
The military was one of the Nazis’ main bases of power. It allowed them to influence people so that an idea like the Holocaust could become reality. As a result, Anne was forced to go into hiding, which sets the stage for the events of her diary.
What request did President Roosevelt make of Hitler?
-On September 27, 1938, Roosevelt sent a telegram to Hitler to appeal for peace
-FDR stated that Germany needed to settle its disputes with Czechoslovakia peacefully
-he also said that war was completely unnecessary and unjustifiable
-Roosevelt informed Hitler that negotiations for peace were still open
What was Hitler’s response to this request?
-Hitler said that Germany was treated very unfairly as a result of World War I
-he opposed the creation of Czechoslovakia and disliked the fact that Czechoslovakia was against the Germans who lived there (Sudeten Germans)
-he stated that the German government was not responsible for anything and that the decision between peace and war was up to the Czechoslovakian government
-eventually, in March 1939, Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia
The Axis powers originally consisted of Germany, Italy and Japan.
But later, expanded to include Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary and Austria.
Hitler invades Czechoslovakia- March 1939
Despite the assurances given by Hitler in the Treaty of Munich (Sept 1938), he marched into Czechoslovakia and occupied the country.
Czechoslovakia was one of Germany’s border nations and by overtaking them, Germany was able to strengthen its own defenses,take advantage of the improved access to Eastern Lands and take a large portion of natural resources. Also, Britain and France refused to aid Czechoslovakia should they be attacked.
Hitler invades Poland-1 Sept 1939
Adolf Hitler invaded Poland.
Hitler attacked Germany in an effort to prevent an anti-German alliance, and it was a step forward towards Russia.
Hitler invades Denmark and Norway- April/May 1940
Hitler invaded and occupied Denmark and Norway to safeguard supply routes of Swedish ore and also to establish a Norwegian base from which to break the British naval blockade on Germany.
Germany was able to strategically secure ice-free harbors from which naval forces could control the North Atlantic and to preempt a British and France invasion.
Blitzkrieg-10 May 1940
Hitler launched his blitzkrieg (lightning war) against Holland,Belgium and Luxembourg. Rotterdam was bombed almost to extinction. All countries were occupied.
These countries were
attacked as Germany wished to move as quickly as possible towards France, and a vicious attack against Rotterdam seemed to be the quickest way to force surrender.
Battle of Britain-10 July - 31 October 1940
The Battle of Britain comprised four phases:
1. During July Hitler sent his Luftwaffe bombers to attack British ports. His aim was also to assess the speed and quality of response by the British forces
2. During August the attacks on shipping continued but bombing raids were concentrated on RAF airfields.
3. The Blitz - From September 7th the city of London was heavily bombed. Hitler hoped to destroy the morale of the British people.
4. Night Bombing - With the failure of daylight bombing raids Hitler began a series of nightly bombing raids on London and other important industrial cities.
The RAF defended the skies and by October 31 the raids had ceased.
This was the German plan to win air superiority over Southern Britain and the English Channel by destroying the British air force and aircraft industry. Hitler saw victory in the battle as a prelude to the invasion of Britain.
Italy and Germany attack Yugoslavia- Early 1941
German and Italian troops attacked Yugoslavia, Greece and the island of Crete. German field Marshall Erwin Rommel led the axis powers back to North Africa.
The attack on Yugoslavia was for this country's immense mineral resources and to secure the southern flank for Germany.
Hitler attacks Russia - Operation Barbarossa-22 June 1941
Hitler sent 3 million soldiers and 3,500 tanks into Russia. The Russians were taken by surprise as they had signed a treaty with Germany in 1939. Stalin immediately signed a mutual assistance treaty with Britain and launched an Eastern front battle that would claim 20 million casualties. The USA, which had been supplying arms to Britain under a 'Lend-Lease' agreement, offered similar aid to USSR.
The Red Army was taken by complete surprise, Germany was suffering from a lack of oil and it had to attack Russia in an effort to regain this oil and Russia stood in the path of complete domination of Europe for Germany.
Annex life is extremely positive throughout this section as her relationship with Peter has progressed forward.
Anne is able to distract herself from the unfavorable conditions outside of the Annex through her bond with Peter.
Also, having someone to talk to about the tension and anxiety is a way to manage stress and reduce it and Peter seems to be the one that Anne now trusts deeply
Another point of positive support is that Anne is looking towards the "beauty that remains" and how having courage and faith will enable those to survive(Frank,171)
In Anne’s narrative, is annex life more positive than negative or the other way around? Support your conclusion with specific details from the diary.
-distrusted his generals and felt that he could not rely on them
-relied on his own instinct instead of logic
-insisted on complete control over the military – nothing could occur without his approval
-was often very indecisive
-his generals often fought among themselves
-no clear strategy
What key military mistakes did Hitler make?
-he ended up fighting three major world powers – the US, Britain, and the Soviet Union – at the same time, which would inevitably lead to defeat
-1943: Hitler could not make a decision about attacking Kursk, so the attack was postponed, giving the Soviets a great advantage
-1944: Hitler’s commanders tried to persuade him not to attack the Ardennes, but he was too stubborn
What were the consequences of these errors?
On February 16th, Diplomats from the USSR and Finland meet to sign an armistice
Before this discussion on the Armistice, the USSR and Finland were fighting what is known as the Continuation War
This war was fought in an effort for Finland to regain territories it lost in the Winter War, which occurred a few years earlier. They were successful for a few years.
But, the Red Army launched a massive counter attack in 1944, resulting in a stand still.
However, on February 16th, 1944, peace discussions took place in an effort to stop the loss of life but the Red Army chose to continue to bomb the city of Helsinki
On March 21st, Finland rejected the Soviet peace terms
This complete rejection of peace caused the war to rage on for 5 more months until a final peace treaty was signed bringing the end of the Continuation War.
The Moscow Armistice was signed on 19 September 1944:
Finland was forced to cede off parts of Finnish Karelia, part of Salla and islands in the Gulf of Finland.
This new armistice also handed the whole of Petsamo over to the Soviet Union.
Finland also agreed to legalize communist parties, ban fascist organizations and drive German troops away from territory
What is the relationship of the annex to the outside world in this section? What special details are given about things that happen in the other parts of the building that have or may have an effect on the annex’s occupants? What observations can be made or are made from the annex regarding life on the outside?
February 20 - February 25
The Big Week Bombing Campaign
This burglary affected the annex occupants in the sense that the residence in which the Franks were staying turned out to be quite dangerous as the burglars had left the front door wide open, their supplies and projector had been stolen from the cupboard.
The lock had been undamaged so there must be a skeleton key or someone with a key, also incriminating their warehouse workers.
This event served to scare the members of the Secret Annex, providing tension and even more stress.
One of their faithful workers, Kraler was exempted from digging by the Court providing a bit of relief.
Spirits also recovered as their "coupon men" are out of jail and Eli's sickness is receding
The Allies realized that they needed to weaken the Luftwaffe (German air force) to defeat Germany.
They targeted places that manufactured German aircraft.
The Americans focused on daytime bombing while the British attacked at night.
The Germans fought back fiercely and there were many deaths on both sides.
However, the Allies made significant progress in damaging the Luftwaffe, and this was vital for their success in the war.
What is the general tone of annex life in this section? What circumstances affect this tone?
The general tone is one of happiness from Anne's view point as she has Peter to talk with.
Even aside from this new found relationship life seems to look up as the outside world and the war has not had much affect on Anne.
Anne is not as affectionate towards her father as she used to be (pg. 177)
Anne feels that her mother does not understand her or know how to give advice (pg. 163)
Mrs. Frank is unhappy because Anne does not pay enough attention to her (pg. 163)
Anne thinks that Mrs. Frank is too protective of her and will not let her be her own person (pg. 179)
at some points, Anne feels a separation between her and Margot (pg. 172)
Anne and Margot are very honest with each other about Peter (pg. 182)
Anne still does not like Dussel and finds him aggravating
Anne states that she actually talked to Mrs. Van Daan more than she talked to her own mother (pg. 163)
Anne notices the fact that Mr. Van Daan relies on smoking (pg. 174)
in the beginning of the section, Anne has friendly conversations with Peter (pg. 155)
eventually, she becomes slightly obsessed with him and essentially lives to spend time with him (pg. 160)
Does Anne, as you come to know her better, seem like an ordinary girl of her age? Support your opinion with facts, details, and examples.
• No, not an ordinary girl
o She has unusual thoughts for a girl her age, for example, on pg. 171, Anne writes about her mother is so thankful that she has to avoid the misery of the world, Anne herself writes to “… go outside, to the fields, enjoy nature and the sunshine, go out and try to recapture happiness in yourself and in God…”
- An normal girl her age does not usually have such thoughts, for a girl around the age of 14 usually does not have thoughts over religious aspects
o Also, Anne make comments about the weather and nature, such as on pg. 176, where she says “… The weather is lovely superb, I can’t describe it, I’m going up to the attic in a minute…”
- An normal girl her age does not have thoughts such as these about nature and the weather, since this is usually a sign of wisdom, and a person at the age of 13 does not have that much wisdom
16 February, 1944 – 28 March, 1944
What events transpire in which she is directly involved?
• Conversations/Interactions with Peter
o For example, finding potatoes to give to Peter, who will then cook up a meal for Margot’s birthday (pg. 153)
• Receiving letters from Margot about her thoughts of Peter and Anne (pg. 182-184)
o In the letters, Margot and Anne write back and forth about subjects involving Peter and a person to depend on
How do these events influence her perspective on her situation and on life in general?
• Her conversations in Peter cause Anne to be in an exceptionally happy mood, where all she can think about is Peter
o Anne develops fond feelings for Peter, for when they talk in the evenings, Anne can almost be picture smiling
• The letters she receives from Margot impact her mood in the story, for she “returns to reality” slightly and realizes how her relationship with Peter is hurting her sister
o Margot, thought she knows is hurt, acts as if everything is alright
What particular rules or procedures do we discover in this section regarding life in the annex?
• Only allowed to see other people during certain hours, such as only at night, due to the fact that they should remain as secretive as possible
o Anne usually visited Peter in the evenings
What special problems or situations arise that influence annex life in this section?
• Margot and Anne feel slight tension over Anne’s relationship with Peter
• Mrs. Van Daan and Mrs. Frank are slightly disgruntled with each other, again…
• A burglary occurs, stealing the projector and Kraler’s new portfolio
o Possibly a skeleton key, or a key made to fit exactly one whole, though it was made for the use of robbery
• Italian town of Cassino destroyed by Allied bombing during the “third” Battle of Cassino, being the third of a four-part series of attacks in the area
o The aftermath was spent stabilizing the front, extracting the isolated Gurkhas from Hangman's Hill and the detachment from New Zealand 24 Battalion
- The Allied line was reorganized with the exhausted 4th Indian Division and 2 New Zealand Division withdrawn and replaced respectively in the mountains by British 78th Division and in the town by British 1st Guards Brigade
o Allied forces make some gains at Castle Hill and Hangman's Hill
o This third battle proved to be costly for both sides
- The Allied Forces lost about 5,000 men, with the Germans losing about the same amount of casualties
o The New Zealand Corps, the group that helped the British and French with the attack, dissolved and became part of the British XIII Corps
• Also, Americans take Manus Island in the Admiralty Islands
o Elements of the US 7th and 8th Cavalry Divisions land on the north coast, near Lugos Mission
o The Americans advance toward Lorengau, to re-secure the islands and get more military presence versus the Japanese forces
• Back in Germany, The Nation Council of the French Resistance approves of the Resistance program
o It consisted of two parts, the first, defined as a plan of immediate action, was a call to action to liberate the national territory
- “The representatives of the resistance organizations, trade union federations and the political parties or tendencies grouped within the CNR express their anxiety faced with the physical destruction of the nation which the Nazi oppressor is carrying out with the help of the Vichy men (...). They declare their wish to set the motherland free by collaborating closely with the military operations that the French army and the Allied forces will undertake on the continent.”
o The second part was to try and reunite the entire country of France again in order to be able to rise up against the Nazi regime in the area
- “The representatives of the political movements, groupings, parties and tendencies declare that they are determined to remain united after the liberation, in order to establish the provisional government of the Republic formed by General de Gaulle to defend the nation’ s political and economic independence.”
March 15th, 1944
1.What are Anne's fears?
2. What is a special aspiration that she expresses?
3. What is a dictatorship?
4. Name 4 countries that were part of the Axis Alliance.
5. What was the general tone of Annex life in this section?
6. What was one of the conditions that the Moscow Treaty that Finland would have to abide by?
7. What is Anne's relationship with Mrs. Van Daan like in this section?
8. What did the Allies target during the Big Week Bombing Campaign?
9. What three parts make up the Wehrmacht?
10. What was the crucial part of the German Navy, causing many troubles for the Allies?
Burglary; the secret annex being found
2. Having more talks with peter; being more mature/independent
3. One person and one party in control of a nation
4. Germany, Italy, Japan ,Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary and Austria
5. The general tone is one of happiness from Anne's view point as she has Peter to talk with.
Even aside from this newfound relationship, life seems to look up as the outside world and the war has not had much affect on Anne.
6. Finland was forced to cede off parts of Finnish Karelia, part of Salla and islands in the Gulf of Finland, handed the whole of Petsamo over to the Soviet Union(gave away its territories) and Finland agreed to legalize communist parties, ban fascist organizations and drive German troops away from territory.
7. Anne has fewer conflicts with Mrs. Van Daan and even talks to her more than she talks to her own mother.
8. Attempting to weaken the Luftwaffe, they targeted the places where the Germans manufactured and stored their aircraft.
9. The Army, or Heer, The Air-Force, or the Luftwaffe, and The Germany Navy, or the
10. German U-Boats