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History of Deaf Education: A Timeline

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Ben Umpenhour

on 14 February 2011

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Transcript of History of Deaf Education: A Timeline

1000 B.C. Hebrew law forbade Deaf people to own property or act as a witness in court. 355 BC- Athens, Greece Aristotle equates intelligence with speech. Because "deaf-mutes" cannot vocalize, they cannot express intelligence. St. Augustine of Hippo wrote that the sins of the parents are passed down to their children. Children with impairments were a sign of God punishing the parents for their iniquities.

Because the Bible states that "faith comes by hearing," many made a connection that the Deaf couldn't have faith. Augustine, however, believed that the body movements and gestures used for communication were substitute for speech when, "it came to reaching the soul." 354-430 A.D. Justinian's new "code" for Rome denies the Deaf from buying property or writing a will. 529 A.D. 1620 A.D.
Madrid
Juan Pablo Bonet writes the first book for deaf education. This book titled "Summary of The Letters and The Art of Teaching Speech to The Mute" was a guide to a signed alphabet that heavily influenced many forms of sign language including ASL. 1777 A.D. Leipzig, Germany
Samuel Heinicke School for the Deaf 1760 A.D.
Paris, France Abbe Charles Michel de l'Epee establishes the Royal Institute of Deaf and Mutes. Later Abbe Sicard became his successor. Developed a system of signing that was cumbersome to use and sometimes included four or five different signs. It was designed to help the Deaf learn French. It was rumored that students that were deaf only mimiced his system of signing in class, but used French sign outside of class. He was called the "Father of Sign Language and Deaf Education."
Laurent Clerc was a deaf student at this school and later went on to co-found the American School for the Deaf with Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet. 1872 A.D. Alexander Graham Bell founded the "School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech."
He saw deafness as threat to humanity and was a big player in the Eugenics Movement in the U.S. This movement eventually led to forced sterilizations of people with special needs and was used by Hilter as a model for his eugenics program during WWII. Invented the telephone...and many other things.... Helen Keller was one of his students (who he helped greatly). Thomas Braidwood established the Braidwood Academy for the Deaf and Dumb in London. He used a form of sign language that was the forerunner to British Sign Language. 1783 A.D. Perdro Ponce de Leon taught deaf sons of the Spanish nobility in order that they might inherit property. Used reading and writing, but also taught speech. 1520-1584 A.D.
1817 A.D.
Founding of the now called "American School for the Deaf" by Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, Laurent Clerc (from whom he learned signed language), and Jean Massieu in Hartford, Conecticut. 1864 A.D. Gallaudet University was founded by Edward Gallaudet in the District of Columbia. He also became the first President of the college. 1965 A.D. Court Case, Etc. Timeline: 1982- Rowley vs. the Board of Education This was the first case of a deaf student under IDEA. One of the decissions here said that if a student is handicapped, they dont have to be push to their full potential. Amy's parents asked for additional terp for her, but it was denied. The History of Deaf Education in the World:
A Timeline by Ben Umpenhour Alexander Graham Bell represented the American delegation helped establish the oral method as the preferred method of education. Sign language becomes forbidden in the classroom and Deaf teachers are dismissed in large numbers; 22% of teachers are Deaf 1880 A.D. Congress of Milan- Lexington, NY 1965- The Congressional Babbidge Report investigates Oral deaf education and pronounces that pure Oralism a "dismal Failure". The report recommends alternative methods. 1988- Deaf President Now was a protest the broke out on Gallaudet's campus where students barricaded gates and burned effigies of the then president (Zinser). After she resigned the students marched on Capitol Hill with a banner that said "I still have a dream." 2004- IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) recieves certain amendments. Now students with disabilities must recieve a free and appropriate public education and be prepared for higher education as well as independent living. (Students with an impairment that require additional or different services qualify someone for IDEA 1993). 1975- Congress passes the predessesor of IDEA. Federal aid will be supplied to help students recieve FAPE. 1990- American with Disabilities Act is passed by Congress and prevents descrimination of people with disablitilies. Law also requires those with disabilities must be able to aquire devices for aid (ex. TTY) 1968- Bilingual Education Act is passed. ASL isn't included because it isn't recognized as a language. 2001- No Child Left Behind is signed into law. This is an education reform law that requires every state set a standard and if the goals aren't met by a state, they lose federal funding. 1995- New cochlear implant available increasing use. Children 2 and up are candidates for the operation and many hearing parents opt for their deaf child to get it. 1970-1972- Signed English, Seeing Essentials English and SEE II methods are used to cread a manual code for English. They were only for improving English.
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