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The Nervous System

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Scott Oxholm

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of The Nervous System

The Nervous System
The Role Of The Nervous System
The nervous system's role is
to send, receive, and interpret
information from all over body
The Basic Structure and Function of The Nervous System
The nervous system consists of two parts,
the
central nervous system
and the
peripheral nervous system
.
The
central nervous system
is responsible
for sending, receiving, and interpreting
sensory and motor information. The
central nervous system
consists of the
brain
and the
spinal cord

The
peripheral nervous system

consists of
three types of
neurons
: sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. A
neuron
is the basic nerve cell that transmits and sends information throughout the body

One Disorder of the Nervous System
How Nerve Impulses Travel

The
central nervous system
consists of the
brain
and
spinal cord
.
the
brain
receives information from the body and sends signals through the
spinal cord
back to the body
responsible for basic functioning, such as breathing, seeing, digesting, and having a heart rate
responsible for sensory interpretation, i.e. smelling, hearing, seeing, touch and balance
provides us with the ability to think, have a memory and to understand what’s going on in the world
Peripheral Nervous System
The Central Nervous System
The
peripheral nervous system
consists of the motor and sensory nerves that are found throughout the body.
is divided into two divisions, the
somatic nervous system
and
the
autonomic nervous system
autonomic nervous system
is then divided further, into 3 divisions; the
sympathetic nervous system
, the
parasympathetic nervous system
and the enteric nervous system

The Somatic Nervous System
The
somatic nervous system
is made up of sensory and motor nerve fibers.
sensory fibers send sensory information (touch, pressure, pain, location in space) to the
central nervous system
motor fibers send information to skeletal muscle (ie. muscles attached to bones enabling movement.)
The Autonomic Nervous System
The
autonomic nervous system
controls smooth muscle (internal organs; eg. heart, lungs, digestive tract etc.) and glands (pancreas, thyroid).

autonomic nervous system
is important for situations of high and low stress
high stress situations require the “flight” or “fight” response (to stay or to run away)
low stress situations require the “digest” and “rest” response.
all done unconsciously, or involuntarily, ie. we digest our food, we send blood to active muscles and we sweat in appropriate situations unconsciously.
The
autonomic nervous system
is then further divided into the
sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system
and the enteric nervous system.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The
sympathetic nervous
system is responsible for the “fight” or “flight” response
in high stress situations the
sympathetic nervous system
functions
slows down your digestion, increases your blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The
parasympathetic nervous system
is responsible for the “digest” and “rest” response.
in low stress situations, the
parasympathetic nervous system
functions
slows down your heart rate, pulse, breathing rate, and allows digestion to begin
Enteric Nervous System
The enteric nervous system, is a network of nerve fibers that supplies the viscera (gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and gall bladder) with nerves.
The Brain
The
brain
can be divided into the
cerebellum
, the
brain stem
and the
cerebrum
.
cerebrum
is then divided into five lobes, the parietal lobe, the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe, the temporal lobe and the limbic lobe.

brain stem
is divided into the
medulla oblongata
, the pons and the mid brain.
Frontal Lobe
The function is to provide you with conscious thought, concentration, perseverance, judgement, attention span, impulse control (self-monitoring and supervision), problem solving, organization, critical thinking, forward thinking, the ability to feel and express emotion, empathy, motor control areas, and memory for habits and motor activities. The brain area involved in the creation of speech is located in the left frontal lobe.
Parkinson's disease progressively
affects your movement. Tremors tend to be the most well knows symptom but it also can start with stiffness or slow movement. The cause for this disease has not been narrowed down to one source but people with bad genetics and an age above 50 have a higher chance of getting this disease. This can lead to complete inability to move. Some of the ways that have been found to prevent this disease are to consume caffeinated drinks. Scientists also found that people who consume nicotine lower their chances of getting Parkinson's disease by a third. The reason for these things helping in the prevention of Parkinson's disease is unknown. Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease.
Parietal Lobe
The function is to provide you with visual attention, touch perception, monitors sensation and body positions, controls reading, face recognition understanding time, goals directed to voluntary movement and manipulation of objects.
Occipital Lobe
The function is to provide you with the ability to receive visual information, and to interpret colour, shape and distance.
Temporal Lobe
The function is to provide you with memory, new learning, receiving auditory messages (hearing), controlling how things are ordered and categorized, some of your visual perception, and rhythm. The understanding of language is located in the left temporal lobe.
Limbic Lobe
The function is to provide you with memory, the processing of emotional information and regulation of emotional responses.
Cerebellum
The function is to provide you with the ability to have coordination and equilibrium (balance)
Brain Stem
The
Brain Stem
is divided into the
medulla oblongata
, the mid brain, and the pons. The functions of the brain stem are spread throughout these three areas. The brain stem provides you with the ability to breath, to have a heart rate, to swallow, have a start response (reflexes to seeing and hearing),
autonomic nervous system
(sweating, blood pressure, digestion, temperature), affects level of alertness, the ability to sleep, vestibular function (sense of balance.) The
brain stem
represents the point at which the
spinal cord
transitions to the
brain
.
The
cerebrum
is also divided into the left and right hemispheres, within each hemisphere all of the lobes appear.
Generally, the left hemisphere is associated with verbal and analytic thinking; the right hemisphere is usually associated with visual spatial abilities
The Brain
When a
cell body
receives
stimuli
its
response
is to activate the
ganglia
(a mass of nerve cells serving as the center of where
nerve impulses
are transmitted) that transmits a
nerve impulse
along its
axons
. Once the impulse reaches the end of the
axon

neurotransmitters
get released into the
synapse
. Which is the space between it and the adjacent
neuron
. Once the
neurotransmitters
cross the
synapse
and are received by the adjacent
neurons

dendrite
it causes the adjacent
neuron
to fire.

What Occurs During a Reflex Arc
When a
reflex arc
occurs your receptor cells (a cell that reacts to a specific stimulus ex.the receptor cells in your eyes react to light) react to a
stimulus
and then you react without thinking. During a
reflex arc
sensory cells take information from the receptor cells to the
spinal chord
where an interneuron immediately transfers the information from sensory cells to the motor cells. Then the motor cells take the information back to the body so action can be taken.

Bibliography
Acetycholine,<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acetylcholine>

Adelaide Hospital, Australia. “Brain and map functions.” Brain Injury and Rehabilitation Service. 03 Jul. 2013.<http://www.rah.sa.gov.au/birs/bi_brain.php>

Bailey Regina,Central Nervous System,<http://biology.about.com/od/organsystems/ss/central-nervous-system.htm>

Bailey, Regina. “Nervous system: peripheral nervous system.” About.com Biology. Not stated. < http://biology.about.com/od/organsystems/a/aa061804a.htm>

Bailey Regina, Peripheral Nervous System,<http://biology.about.com/od/organsystems/a/aa061804a.htm>

Basic Neuron Types,<http://antranik.org/neurons-in-the-nervous-system/

Chudler. Eric. “Divisions of the nervous system.” Neuroscience for kids. 2 Dec. 2013.
< http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/nsdivide.html#cns>

Dendrite,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dendrite>

Do People With SCI Recover,<http://sifoundation.webs.com/spinalcordinjury.htm>

Interneurons,<http://gerardkeegan.com/glossary/interneurons>

Keefer, Laurie and Artz, Caroline. “Traumatic stress and GI health.” Center for Psychosocial Research in GI: Northwestern University. 11 Sept. 2013. < http://cprgi.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Enteric_Nervous_System.jpg>
LoveToknow Corporation. “Science dictionary.” Your Dictionary: the Dictionary you Can Understand. Not Stated. <http://science.yourdictionary.com>

Nolte, John. “The Human Brain: An Introduction to It’s functional Anatomy Fourth Edition.” St. Louis Missouri: Mosby, Inc., 1999
Smith, Rene. “Human body facts.” Science Kids Fun Science and Technology for Kids. 25 Nov. 2013. <http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/humanbody/brain.html>

Parkinson's disease, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkinson's_disease >

Parkinson’s Disease,<http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/parkinsons-disease/DS00295>

The Brain,<http://www.sciencebob.com/research/brain.php>

The Central Nervous System,<http://mcb.berkley.edu/courses/mcb135e/central.html>

The Reflex Arc,<http://outreach.mcb.harvard.edu/teachers/Summer05/JerryHalpern/Reflexes.pdf>

The Spinal Cord,<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinal_cord#Spinal_cord_segments>

The Stages of Parkinson's Disease, <http://www.webmd.com/parkinsons-disease/guide/parkinsons-stages>

What is Parkinson’s Disease,<http://www.medicinenet.com/parkinsons_disease/article.htm>

<www.yourdictionary.com/meninges#>

Sensory Neurons
The sensory
neurons
job is to take the information they get from the cell they are connected to and take the information to the
central nervous system
to be processed.
Interneurons
The interneurons connect sensory
neurons
and motor
neurons
together so that the information in the sensory
neurons
can be taken by the motor
neurons
to the muscles so they can react accordingly (this happens in the case of a reflex arc)
Acetylcholine
is a type of interneuron that completes the task of connecting the sensory and motor
neurons
.
Motor Neurons
Motor
neurons
take information from
interneurons or the
central nervous system
to the correct muscle where the muscle reacts properly depending on the information.
By:
Maya
&
Scott
THANKS FOR LISTENING!!
Adelaide Hospital, Australia. “Brain and map functions.” Brain Injury and Rehabilitation Service. 03 Jul. 2013.<http://www.rah.sa.gov.au/birs/bi_brain.php>

Bailey, Regina. “Nervous system: peripheral nervous system.” About.com Biology. Not stated. < http://biology.about.com/od/organsystems/a/aa061804a.htm>

Chudler. Eric. “Divisions of the nervous system.” Neuroscience for kids. 2 Dec. 2013.
< http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/nsdivide.html#cns>

Keefer, Laurie and Artz, Caroline. “Traumatic stress and GI health.” Center for Psychosocial Research in GI: Northwestern University. 11 Sept. 2013. < http://cprgi.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Enteric_Nervous_System.jpg>
LoveToknow Corporation. “Science dictionary.” Your Dictionary: the Dictionary you Can Understand. Not Stated. <http://science.yourdictionary.com>

Nolte, John. “The Human Brain: An Introduction to It’s functional Anatomy Fourth Edition.” St. Louis Missouri: Mosby, Inc., 1999
Smith, Rene. “Human body facts.” Science Kids Fun Science and Technology for Kids. 25 Nov. 2013. <http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/humanbody/brain.html>






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