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Foreign Policy during the Kennedy Administration

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Julienne Viuya

on 20 December 2012

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Transcript of Foreign Policy during the Kennedy Administration

Foreign policy during the Administration (1961-63) Kennedy Central America South East Asia Divided as a result of the Geneva agreement Background information North Vietnam Communist
Ho Chi Minh South Vietnam "Republic of Vietnam"
Ngo Dinh Diem Leading up to the Vietnam War Laos Cold War Domino Theory Arab-Israeli Conflict Background New state of Israel created post WWII in 1948 Neighbors of Israel formed the Arab League Arab armies invaded Israel but were defeated in the war from 1948-1949 Bay Of Pigs Invasion,
April 1961 Invasion of Bay of Pigs by anti-Castro exiles failed.

Supported by U.S. but not enough support

Lowered U.S. prestige Cuban Missile Crisis October 24 to October 28,
-Secret peaceful letters between Kennedy to Krushchev
-During this time, several Soviet ships attempted to run the blockade
-October 26, 10 P.M. U.S.: DEFCON 2
-October 27, American U2 shot down by Soviet missile crew Cuban Missile Crisis Havana Conference in October 2002
New secrets revealed. Alliance for Progress 10 year aid program for all Latin Americans
Set in the resort town of Punta del Este in Uruguay
U.S. promised at least $20 billion in aid
-the establishment of democratic governments
-the elimination of adult illiteracy by 1970
-price stability
-equal income distribution
-land reform and economic + social planning. -Promotes tax and agricultural reforms
Redistribute both the national income and large land-holdings

1961 to 1963, U.S. suspended /broke off diplomatic relations with several countries that had dictatorships
-Argentina, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru
-Only temporarily for periods of 3 weeks to 6 months Aid to Brazil 1956-1961
-Juscelino Kubitschek took office
-open to foreign capital investments.
-wanted to strengthen ties with U.S.
1961, Janio Quadros took office
-Communist supporter
-resigned suddenly (provoked by breakup of UDN and military tensions). 1961-1964, Joao Goulart took office
-Communist supporter
By the end of 1963, U.S. downgraded relations and reduced aid.
March 1964, U.S. friendly military regime overthrew govn. Aid to Haiti U.S. suspended aid in 1961
-allegations that François Duvalier pocketed aid money
-intended to use a Marine Corps mission to strengthen the Macoutes Angola War Of Independence Began as an Uprising against forced cotton cultivation

Possibility of Marxist Regime being established in the capital, so U.S. began to help out the FNLA

FNLA not happy with U.S. support
-Established good connection with China Congo Crisis Began with national dependence from Belgium and ended with the seizing of power by Joseph Mobutu

Had characteristics of anti-colonial struggle, a secessionist war with the province of Katanga, a United Nations peacekeeping operation, and a Cold War proxy battle between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Over 100,000 deaths, assassination of PM Patrice Lumumba and death of UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjold Kennedy’s foreign policy towards the U.S.S.R. Domino Theory
-If one country falls to communism, the ones surrounding it will fall as well.
Followed Eisenhower’s policy of flexible response
Spreading the Communist Disease
-Prompted democracy in areas such as Latin America and West Germany
Use of force
-Willing to use for to stop the spread of communism Anti-Commie United States A.C.D.A.
strengthen United States national security

E.N.C.D.
Peacekeeping between the U.S. and U.S.S.R.
Discussed disarmament and nuclear test controls Arms Control Direct Defense

Deliberate Escalation

General Nuclear Response

M.A.D. Flexible Response 1.Nuclear Weapons
2.Flexible Response
3.Arms Control
4.Anti-Commie Overview Current Weapons and Capabilities
Atlas D,E,F ICBM
Titan 1,2 ICBM
Minuteman 1 ICBM
Polaris A1, A2 SLBM
The Arms Race
Stockpile everything under the sun (ICBM, SLBM, Warheads, Tactical Weapons)
Weapons Testing
Testing done in and outside of the U.S.
White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico and The Bikini Atoll Nuclear Weapons Europe Initial tension of Cuban Missile Crisis Major tensions during Cuban Missile Crisis Relief of the Tension "We were closer to nuclear war than we actually thought" Military advisers sent during Eisenhower administration
Guerrilla warfare used against American troops
U.S. supported S. Vietnam
Vietcong fought against South Vietnamese govt. Atlas D Atlas E Atlas F Titan 1 Titan 2 Polaris A1 "Acting on our own, by ourselves we cannot establish justice throughout the world"
-JFK Polaris A2 "Pay any price, bear any burden" -JFK in his inaugural address Kennedy's inaugural address
-an outline for international friendships
-an outline for negotiations The U.N. and Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Kennedy before the U.N. General Assembly-
-All nations sign the test ban treaty
-Stop the production of fissionable materials for use in weapons
-Prohibit the trade of control of nuclear weapons.
-Keep nuclear weapons from seeding new battlegrounds in outer space.
-Gradually destroy the existing nuclear weapons
-convert materials to peaceful uses
-Halt the unlimited testing and production of strategic nuclear delivery vehicles

Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
-prohibited nuclear weapons tests anywhere except underground
-pledged signatories to work towards complete disarmament, an end to the armaments race, and an end to the contamination of the environment by radioactive substances. Disputed role of U,S. in world affairs "President Kennedy was the first President, that I know of, who was really his own secretary of state. He dealt with every aspect of foreign policy, and he knew about everything that was going on" -William Averell Harriman Kennedy's opinion Believed in U.S. commitment to Israeli security "Israel will endure and flourish. It is the child of hope and the home of the brave. It can neither be broken by adversity nor demoralized by success. It carries the shield of democracy and it honors the sword of freedom" -JFK Kennedy extended the first informal security guarantees to Israel in 1962 and, beginning in 1963, allowed the sale to Israel of advanced US weaponry (the MIM-23 Hawk), as well as to provide diplomatic support for Israeli policies which were opposed by Arab neighbours Kennedy extended the first informal security guarantees to Israel in 1962 and, beginning in 1963, allowed the sale to Israel of advanced US weaponry (the MIM-23 Hawk), as well as to provide diplomatic support for Israeli policies which were opposed by Arab neighbours Kennedy extended the first informal security guarantees to Israel in 1962 and, beginning in 1963, allowed the sale to Israel of advanced US weaponry (the MIM-23 Hawk), as well as to provide diplomatic support for Israeli policies which were opposed by Arab neighbours Kennedy extended the first informal security guarantees to Israel in 1962 and, beginning in 1963, allowed the sale to Israel of advanced US weaponry (the MIM-23 Hawk), as well as to provide diplomatic support for Israeli policies which were opposed by Arab neighbours -October 28,
U.S. and Soviets reach agreement of dismantling IRBMs and ICBMs
-Blockade ended at 6:45 p.m. on November 20, 1962.
-Moscow-Washington hotline, Introduction Juscelino Kubitschek Joao Goulart Janio Quadros Papa Doc U.S. let Aero Associates sell bombers to Portugal, despite Portugal’s concerns about their support for the Marxists from Cuba and USSR Alvor Agreement National Security Action Memorandum No. 194 Summer of 1962-
Soviets begin arms buildup of Cuba

Late October-
aerial recon photographs showed Soviet Union ICBMs

U.S. decided on military blockade Trip #1 lasted from May 30th - June 5th 1961 Two major reasons France President Kennedy Meets Charles De Gaule in Paris Trip #2 lasted from June 23- July 2nd 1963 The Bigger Picture Nuclear Defense for France Discuss important European issues Austria The Vienna Summit US provided economic
martial
diplomatic support to Israel Discussed : A neutral independant Laos Nuclear Test control Berlin Meets with Prime Minister Harold Macmillan Nassau Agreement/Polaris Sales Agreement Visiting The "Old Continent" Great Britain Assassination Nuclear explosions During JFK's Administration http://splicd.com/LLCF7vPanrY/265/303 http://www.tiki-toki.com/timeline/entry/82696/Kennedy-Foreign-Policy/#vars!date=1962-10-15_13:13:00! Called for: Communist upsurge in 1960
1961 - Kennedy & Khrushchev
"a neutral and independent Laos"
Prince Souvanna Phouma installed East Germany - West Berlin The Standoff at Checkpoint Charlie Ich bin Ein Berliner Arms Control and Disarmament Agency http://splicd.com/GK907TwM7q0/0/125 -Established September 26, 1961
-Early mission
-to strengthen United States national security Turkey Removal of the PGM-19 Jupiter Missiles European- American Trade Trade Expansion Act of 1962 “Food is strength, and food is peace, and food is freedom, and food is a helping to people around the world whose good will and friendship we want.” Proclamation 3504 "Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate" JFK Withdrawal Plan
(1963) NSAM 263
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