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Chemistry of Sunblock

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angela ramirez

on 7 June 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry of Sunblock

Chemistry of Sunblock By: Liezl Ramirez
Period 2
MERITS CHEMISTRY What is Sunblock? Sunblock is known to be the one of the main necessities during the warmer seasons. They are used to protect the skin from the damaging ultraviolet rays of the sun, in the form of cream, lotion, or spray. Wearing sunblock can also reduce the possibilities of getting skin cancer or any other sun-related diseases. Chemistry Definition: The combination of organic and inorganic chemicals that filters the light from the sun to lessen the damages to the deeper layer of our skin. The organic molecules in sunblock absorb the UV radiation and transform it as heat. It contains zinc oxide or titanium oxide that reflects and absorbs the UV sun
rays. It used to have a
thick, white color to it
that makes it very
noticeable when worn.
For the more modern
sunblocks, they are
built to have a sheer
white color, by
making the oxide
particles smaller. What is the difference between
Sunscreen and Sunblock? While sunscreen only lessens the affect of the sun rays to our skin, sunblock completely blocks the sun and protects our skin from the harsh ultraviolet light. History of Sunblock Just like a screen door, using sun"screen" can only cause some light to penetrate in, but not as much as if it is not applied to the skin. Ingredients in Sunblock When UV-A or UV-B rays hit the absorbing molecules, their electrons get excited, but once
they settle down and return to their original
energy levels, they give off energy in the form of heat. Sun Protection Factor (SPF) SPF is a laboratory measure of its effectiveness. The higher the SPF, the higher the protection from Ultraviolet type B radiation (UV-B) that causes sunburn. SPF determines how long you can stay under the sun before getting a sunburn. SPF does not indicate protection from UV-A radiation, which can cause cancer and premature aging of the skin. How does it work? How is it beneficial?
How can it be dangerous? More benefits... Long & Short-Term Effects
of UV Exposure Short-terms How to make Homemade
Sunscreen
1/2 cup almond or olive oil (can infuse with herbs first if desired)
1/4 cup coconut oil (natural SPF 4)
1/4 cup beeswax
2 Tablespoons Zinc Oxide (This is a non-nano version that won’t be absorbed into the skin. Be careful not to inhale the powder). This makes a natural SPF of 20+ or more can be added.)
Optional: 1 teaspoon Vitamin E oil
Optional: 2 tablespoons Shea Butter (natural SPF 4-5)
Optional: Essential Oils, Vanilla Extract or other natural extracts to suit your preference The use of sunblock can protect from both UVA and UVB rays, which are the types of UV radiation that cause sunburn and skin cancer.

p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) up to 15 percent.
Avobenzone up to 3 percent.
Cinoxate up to 3 percent.
Dioxybenzone up to 3 percent.
Homosalate up to 15 percent.
Menthyl anthranilate up to 5 percent.
Octocrylene up to 10 percent.
Octyl methoxycinnamate up to 7.5 percent.
Octyl salicylate up to 5 percent.
Oxybenzone up to 6 percent.
Padimate O up to 8 percent.
Phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid up to 4 percent.
Sulisobenzone up to 10 percent.
Titanium dioxide up to 25 percent.
Trolamine salicylate up to 12 percent.
Zinc oxide up to 25 percent. Ancient Egyptians considered light skin more beautiful than dark skin. Because of their rich-sun environment, it was hard for them to have light skin. Recently translated papyri and tomb walls reveal the ingredients of potions used to ward off a tan and heal damaged skin. This is what the chemists use as a reference into creating a more modern sunscreen/sunblock. For example, the Egyptians used rice bran because it tends to absorb UV radiation. Scientists today extract gamma oryzanol from rice bran to create sunscreen and sunblock. 1.) Combine ingredients except zinc oxide in a pint sized or larger glass jar. I have a mason jar that I keep just for making lotions and lotion bars, or you can even reuse a glass jar from pickles, olives or other foods.
2.) Fill a medium saucepan with a couple inches of water and place over medium heat.
3.) Put a lid on the jar loosely and place in the pan with the water.
4.) As the water heats, the ingredients in the jar will start to melt. Shake or stir occasionally to incorporate. When all ingredients are completely melted, add the zinc oxide, stir in well and pour into whatever jar or tin you will use for storage. Small mason jars (pint size) are great for this. It will not pump well in a lotion pump!
5.) Stir a few times as it cools to make sure zinc oxide is incorporated.
6.) Use as you would regular sunscreen. Best if used within six months. Procedure: Ingredients: PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid) absorbs UVB
Cinnamates absorb UVB
Benzophenones absorb UVA
Anthranilates absorb UVA and UVB
Ecamsules absorb UVA Organic Molecules in Sunblock UV-B affects the surface of the skin and is the primary cause of sunburn. While UV-A penetrates more deeply causing long-term damages like wrinkles and age spots. But both types can cause skin cancer. Octinoxate- UV-A absorbing molecule Avobenzone - UV-B
absorbing molecule Our skin has a natural SPF, which is determined by how much melanin we have. Melanin is the dark pigmentation occurring in our hair, skin, or eyes. SPF is a multiplication factor. For
example, SPF 15 means that a user
can remain in the sun 15 times longer
than would otherwise cause them to
have a sunburn. UVA rays can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin and can cause premature aging by damaging collagen and elastin in the skin. Meanwhile, UVB rays can damage cell membranes, resulting in red leather, and burns (sunburn), and also damage the DNA of cells that result in damage to cellular repair mechanisms. UV-A and UV-B Rays Long-terms Sunburn
Tanning
Thickening of the skin Wrinkles and dry skin
Mottled pigmentation
Skin cancer Sunscreen works by absorbing
UV radiation, and keeps it away
from penetrating the skin. It sits
on the top of the skin, ready to
absorb harmful UV rays. It's beneficial because it
prevents these to happen... Sometimes, after applying sunscreen for awhile, it penetrates into the skin and and reacts to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause some damages to the skin. Sunblocks often appear white on the skin. Sunscreens tend to be less visible on the skin. They usually contain benzophenones, which protect against UVA, and cinnamates and salicylates, which protect against UVB. Sunscreen lotions are extremely safe and effective. When worn daily, sunscreens help to minimize the harmful effects of UVB and UVA on DNA. They also help shield important proteins like collagen, elastin, and keratin, which keep skin smooth and firm. The creation of sunblock was a success.
It did not only help the people, it helped
many manufacturers flourish as well.
According to IBIS WORLD, the industries'
revenue increased to $1 billion, with a
4.2% annual growth. The four years to
2017 are promising for the Sunscreen
Manufacturers industry. Consumers'
growing spending power will allow
shoppers to buy more and higher-priced
sun protection products, and therefore, increase yearly earnings. This is
also beneficial because it helps with putting people on jobs. The survey shows that a manufacturer hires of an average of 1,333 employers every year. Awesome Video! The End.
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