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Civil War Battles (7)

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Mr. Green

on 7 November 2013

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Transcript of Civil War Battles (7)

Brawner's Farm
Arrival of Longstreet
Final Confederate Attacks
McClellan vs. Lee
first battle fought on Northern soil (Sharpsburg Maryland)
Inconclusive result from military point of view, but some say Union claimed victory
South got reinforcements, McClellan checked Confederate advance into the North
22,000 casualtiess, single bloodiest day in American history
significance: led to Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation

United States vs. The Confederacy
Major General John Pope (US) and General Thomas Jackson

CSA VICTORY August 28-30, 1862
On the 28th: attacked union soldiers near Gainesville at Brawner’s Farm (tie)
On the 29th: Pope attacked at Stony Ridge and attacked them (heavy casualties). Then, Longstreet’s army showed up and helped Jackson’s.
On 30th: Pope continued to attack not realizing the oppositions numbers had increased. The Union army lost and was driven to Bull Run.

Union – 10,000 killed and wounded (out of 62,000)
CSA - 1,300 killed and 7,000 wounded (out of 50,000)

Significance: just another victory for the CSA

Petersburg: Richmond
Lee vs Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade
Grant vs. Pemberton
The Union Army lead by Meade won because of "Pickett's Charge" Lee ordered 15,000 of his men to Charge the Union army and the Union killed them all, forcing Lee to retreat.
Grant had won at Big Black Bridge and Champion Hill which gave Pemberton no choice but to retreat into the defenses of Vicksburg and wait for reinforcements.
The Union won. Grant laid siege on the city to avoid further loss of life. After 47 days of siege warfare, Pemberton surrendered on July 4, 1863.
806 killed
3,940 wounded
164 missing and captured

Fought between the Union and Confederate.
General Ulysses S. Grant was the general of the Union, General Albert Sidney Johnston was the general of the Confederates.
They clashed because the battle, if the Union won, would grant the Union the territory of Tennessee.
Union won through a surprise invasion the US Navy, while invading with troops.
Union Casualties: 40
Confederate Casualties: 79
It was the first important victory of the Union
805 killed
1,938 wounded
29,620 missing and captured

This battle was between the Union and the Confederate forces. General Sherman led a group of 90,000 men against the Confederate forces filled with 60,000 men under General Johnston.
Johnston prompted General Davis to replace him with John B. Hood. Furthermore, Sherman and the Union took over the city on September 2nd, and burned it down. Next, Hood tried unsuccessfully to draw Sherman out of Atlanta by moving back up through Tennessee and threatening an invasion of the North.
The fight took place here because the Union forces wanted to seize the important rail and supply center of Atlanta. The two sides previously fought at Kennesaw Mountain, northwest of Atlanta, on June 27 where Johnston scored an impressive victory.
Furthermore, Sherman and the Union took over the city on September 2nd, and burned it down. Next, Hood tried unsuccessfully to draw Sherman out of Atlanta by moving back up through Tennessee and threatening an invasion of the North. Sherman sent Union troops to reinforce Nashville, and eventually in the Battle of Nashville in December of 1864, the Northern forces practically destroyed what was left of Hood’s army.
Significance: The fall of Atlanta and the success of the overall Atlanta Campaign were extensively covered by Northern newspapers, and were a boon to Northern morale and to President Lincoln's political standing. The capture of Atlanta and Hood's burning of military facilities as he evacuated showed that a successful conclusion of the war was in sight, weakening support for a truce. Lincoln was reelected by a comfortable margin, with 212 out of 233 electoral votes.

General Albert Sydney Johnston of
Confederates vs. General Ulysses S. Grant of the Tennessee Army
Previously fought at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
Kentucky opened up a northern advantage to take Tennessee
Tactics included General Grant calling for backup from Major General Buell's army
Beauregard is outnumbered and retreats
23,000 total casualties
Grant's objective was to capture a rail road and the Mississippi River to give the Union total control of the region, and to divide the South in half

Union: Ulysses S. Grant
Confederate: Robert E. Lee
Trench Warfare
Union assaults Petersburg but fails
Construction of trench lines
Because Petersburg was essential in the supply of A) the army and B) Richmond: VA's capital
Union won
Lee just forfeits
Prolly because
casualties of maybe
Union and
of maybe
Union- 23,024-27%
Confederate- 28,000-34%
Significant because this lead to Lincoln's famous Gettysburg Address in which he clearly stated the goals of the Union and his personal ideals.
General Ulysses S. Grant is the general for the Union. Genera John B. Floyd is the general for the Confederate.
They clashed 10 days after Fort Henry, 2500 Confederate soldiers fled to Donelson, which is what made the Union advance even more to Donelson and take that.
Union won
Union casualties: 2691
Confederate casualties: 13846
It ensured Kentucky stay with the Union and opened up Tennessee for a Northern advance.
Missing Captured-653
After the surrender of Pemberton, on July 9th the Mississippi River was firmly in the hands of the Union and the Confederacy split in two.
The Confederates won because they made and used defenses constructed on top of Marye's Heights which overlooked Fredericksburg and the river.

The Union fought against the Confederate army. General William T. Sherman led the march from Atlanta to Savannah.
Their goal was to deprive the southerners of war material and transportation.
William T. Sherman and his soldiers destroyed Georgia’s resources to frighten them into leaving the Confederate.
They burned down the houses, stole food and livestock from the people who tried to fight back.
The Union won by leaving Georgia with little to no war materials, transportation, food, etc.
The Union had 62 casualties and the Confederate had 650 killed/ wounded, burned houses, small amount of livestock and food.

Major General Joseph Hooker (union) 133,868 men
General Robert E. Lee Major General Joseph Hooker (union) 133,868 men
Spotsylvania, Virginia.
The confederates used strong defense tactics as well as fighting all the union members.
The union was defeated because the confederates killed a lot of union fighters which made them back down
30,764 casualties
Fourth bloodiest battle in the civil war

Gen. Burnside (Union) vs. Gen. Lee (Confederacy
Gen. Burnside wanted to take the Confederate capital, Richmond and decided to cross the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg because it would mean that his flanks were't open to attack by Gen. Jackson and the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railway would be a good supply line.
Brawner's farm
Arrival of Longstreet
Final CSA Attack
Chickamauga and Chattanooga
Rosecrans Vs. Bragg, Bragg Vs. Grant
In order to kick the the confederates out of Chattanooga
The Tennessee River was used because it gave the Confederate army a higher ground to fight on.
Bragg's men assaulted the Union line. Rosecrans was misinformed that a gap was accidentally created but when trying to fix it actually made a gap. Union units spontaneously rallied to create a defensive line. Confederates launched costly and determined assaults. Union forces then retired to Chattanooga while the Confederates occupied the surrounding heights, besieging the city.
Army of Tennessee launched surprise attack against Bragg. Grant distracted Bragg with Thomas’s army advancing to the centerline causing Bragg to lose.
Rosecrans: 1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing
Bragg: 2,312 killed, 14,674 wounded, 1,468 captured/missing
Bragg: 361 killed, 2,160 wounded, and 4,146 missing, mostly prisoners
Grant: 753 killed, 4,722 wounded, and 349 missing

Which armies fought and who were the commanding generals?
This was the first battle that Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and the Union Army fought against Gen. Robert E. Lee and the Confederate army on North Virginia
- Why did they fight in that place? Where did they clash previously?
This battles occurred in Spotsylvania and Orange County, Virginia.
- Who won and how?
No one won because the Union Army was able to escape to Richmond, VA before the Confederate army could defeat them.
- What were the casualties for each side?
About 17,666 Union Officers were killed, wounded, or captured. About 11,033 Confederate Officers were killed wounded or captured.
- How does this fit into the next movement/battle for each side?
The Union Army escaped to Richmond, VA, which was the capital of the confederacy. This is where the next battle takes place.
Fort Henry
Fort Donelson
2nd Battle of Bull Run
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