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Lim: Rhythms & Algorithms

ISMRC Conference, Boulder CO, 9 August 2018
by

m lim

on 14 August 2018

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Transcript of Lim: Rhythms & Algorithms

Sources: World Bank (2015), ITU (2015)
sources: World Bank, ITU, Freedom House, Arab Media Centre, Transparency International, Economist Intelligence Unit, author's research
more corrupt
less corrupt
more democratic
cyber-activists
activists
students/youth
society at large
intermodality
Egypt
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong_1_July_marches
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-16526765
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong_1_July_marches
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong_1_July_marches
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong_1_July_marches
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Kong_1_July_marches
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-16526765
HONG KONG
EGYPT
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-16526765
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-16526765
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
transformation takes time ....
LONG-TERM ENABLERS
IMMEDIATE TRIGGERS
the failed reform or problematic democratic transitions
the rise of new educated middle class
the growth of civil society
| textile factory workers
| april 6th youth facebook page
ONLINE
OFFLINE
ON/OFFLINE
online
multiple spaces of participation
fragmented enclaves
plural loose networks
fixed & mobile networks
Tunisia - Bouazizi
Egypt - Said
common enemy
victimisation
Hong Kong - Chief Leung
Malaysian Bersih - PM Najib
Google Map
narratives of resistance
emerge.grow.spread
created. communicated. practiced
the alternative future
alternate
I
I
I
I
I
I

EGYPT
TUNISIA
(hidden) transcripts of resistance
Imaginaries. Practices. Trajectories
digital networks are
not
inherent to collective movement
collective
democracy : human rights
political reform : judicial independence : emergency law
labor issue : women's rights
corruption
torture/police brutality
unemployment
poverty
bring
down
Mubarak
individual
_______________
we - they
us - them

shared emotion, anger
The map of issue traffics in the Egyptian blogosphere (2004-2010)
in/visibility
OCLP HK 'secret' meeting
source: http://letstalkdata.com/2014/10/prevalence-of-occupycentral-in-hong-kong-instagrams/ (Phillip Johnson, 2014)
merlyna lim, 2014
merlyna lim, 2014
merlyna lim, 2014
merlyna lim, 2014
map of the Battle of Tahrir Square
Protest manual
meanings. symbols. narratives
in/visibility
| memories. histories. identities
Tunis, Tunisia
Cairo, Egypt
KL, Malaysia
Hong Kong
Ave Habib Bourguiba
Midan Tahrir
Dataran Merdeka
Central.
collective & connective actions
#bersih network
merlyna lim, 2014
globalizing
sources: World Bank, ITU, Freedom House, Arab Media Centre, Transparency International, Economist Intelligence Unit, author's research
sources: World Bank, ITU, Freedom House, Arab Media Centre, Transparency International, Economist Intelligence Unit, author's research
sources: World Bank, ITU, Freedom House, Arab Media Centre, Transparency International, Economist Intelligence Unit, author's research
sources: World Bank, ITU, Freedom House, Arab Media Centre, Transparency International, Economist Intelligence Unit, author's research
sources: World Bank, ITU, Freedom House, Arab Media Centre, Transparency International, Economist Intelligence Unit, author's research
sources: World Bank, ITU, Freedom House, Arab Media Centre, Transparency International, Economist Intelligence Unit, author's research
Indonesia I Asia
Indonesia I Asia
more corrupt
* see McKinnon, 2011
IMAGINARIES
dis/connection
brokering
bridging
framing
hybridizing
in/visibility
intermodality
on/offline connectivity
globalizing
participation
organization
protest
symbolic
protest cycle
life cycle
radical imagination
hidden transcrips
spaces of dis/appearance

multiple spatialities, temporalities, materialities
hybrid networks
repertoires of contention
social movements
communications & MEDIA
2015
2016
MALAYSIA
TUNISIA
Imaginaries
imagining
communicating
sites for
alternative/radical imagination
EGYPT
brokering & bridging
framing
simplification
intermodality
1980s-1990s
Last decade
hybrid media/communication networks
hybrid networks
TUNISIA
TUNISIA
MALAYSIA
spaces of dis/appearance
RHYTHMS ALGORITHMS
multiple spheres of origin
multiple places for imagination
Prácticas

I
Practices
Urban
ON/OFFLINE INTERCONNECTIVITY
fixed & mobile networks
intermodality
COLLECTIVE ACTIONS in

SOCIAL MEDIA
age
MERLYNA LIM
www.merlyna.org
www.carleton.ca/align
@merlyna
ROOTS
youth bulge?
social media?
unemployment?
poverty?
corruption?
repressive regimes?
Spatial
SHORT-TERM CAUSES
Anti-Mubarak Protests -Egypt (2002-2011)
PRACTICES
TRAJECTORIES
ROOTS
from global to national & local
Temporal
ROOTS
Historical
ROOTS
Hybrid Network
social movements
ROUTES
sites for
"inquiry of the invisible"
Where does a movement begin?
_______________
Hong Kong
multiple spheres of origin
collective
individual
_______________
we - they
us - them

shared emotion, anger
framing
_______________
intermodality
offline
on/offline
Limited democratic effects
ON/OFFLINE INTERCONNECTIVITY
NonHuman
Human
The Actors/Routers
Regional
contagion effects
Cultural/Religious
churches
Mosques
Ephemeral
Matt Sheehan for The WorldPost.
Human Bodies
The Human Body is the vital nexus of online & offline, between physical struggles & digital communication, connecting spaces of flows & spaces of places.
Human bodies are brokers, bridges, boundary spanners, liaisons, and more.
The human body is the most significant and, yet, fragile router.
It voices, moves, dissents, and, yet, can be burned, dead, and decayed.
Burning Bodies
Dissenting Bodies
Moving Bodies
EGYPT
Vocal Bodies
The people want to bring down the regime


Do you hear the people sing?
speaks, yells, chants, or sings
Vocal Bodies
In silence, vocal bodies act and resist, beyond voice and noise.
Auntie Bersih
Bouazizi
Tunisia
Hong Kong
ROUTES
Routers
The Context
Spatial
Global to National& Local
Temporal
Long-term enablers
short-term causes
immediate triggers
Historical
hybrid networks
Limited democratic effects
PATTERNS OF GLOBAL CONTEMPORARY PROTEST MOVEMENTS (2010-2017)
IMAGINARIES
dis/connection
brokering
bridging
framing
hybridizing
in/visibility
intermodality
on/offline connectivity
globalizing
participation
organization
protest
symbolic
protest cycle
life cycle
radical imagination
hidden transcrips
spaces of dis/appearance

multiple spatialities, temporalities, materialities
hybrid networks
repertoires of contention
social movements
communications
PRACTICES
TRAJECTORIES
ROUTES
IMAGINARIES
dis/connection
brokering
bridging
framing
hybridizing
in/visibility
intermodality
on/offline connectivity
globalizing
participation
organization
protest
symbolic
protest cycle
life cycle
radical imagination
hidden transcrips
spaces of dis/appearance

multiple spatialities, temporalities, materialities
hybrid networks
repertoires of contention
social movements
communications
PRACTICES
TRAJECTORIES
ROUTES
breaking away from the algorithmic push for homophily -- algorithmic enclaves
SILENCE
Clean! Clean! Clean!
Bersih! Bersih! Bersih!
automated text analysis
in-depth interviews
spatial-sensitive
analysis
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
on/offline
"hang out"
social network analysis
computational mapping
on/offline observation
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
visual
audial
textual
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
spatial
contextual
linkages
media analysis
historical & real-time. online & offline. inter & trans-disciplinary
small & big data. "new media" & "old media"
historical & real-time. online & offline. inter & trans-disciplinary
small & big data. "new media" & "old media"
multi-methods
reflection, critical reflection, reflexivity
method
analysis
engagement
visual. audial. textual.
as
International Society for Media, Religion & Culture
Conference on Media, Religion & Public Scholarship
Boulder CO, 8-11 August 2018
&
rhythm
ῥυθμός, rhythmos
algorithm
['rɪðəm]
algoritmi
['ælgərɪðm ]

wisdom of the crowds?
-- Linux -- interests, hobby
-- fandom
-- politics/identity/ideology

polarization?

homophily

polarization

segmentation ---- antagonistic

filter bubble vs algorithmic enclaves

blog -- rhythms and algorithms
social media --- #hashtag time/space
clicks/swipes

sorting/ranking --


collective actions & social media
"networked collective action" (Rainie & Wellman, 2014)
"crowds of individuals" (Juris, 2012)
"connective action" (Bennett & Segerberg, 2012)
Social media interactions
"curators of public discourse" (Gillespie, 2010)
"producers of sociality" "enabling and forging connections" (van Dijck, 2013)
"organizing agents" (Bennett & Segerberg, 2012)
"myth of us" "natural collectivity" (Couldry, 2015)
"actors" (Milan, 2015)
collective action as:
social media as:
political landscape
media landscape
techno landscape
socioeconomic landscape
collective actions
&
social media

cultural-religious landscape
sources: World Bank, ITU, Freedom House, Arab Media Centre, Transparency International, Economist Intelligence Unit, author's research
more corrupt
less corrupt
more democratic
sources: World Bank, ITU, Freedom House, Arab Media Centre, Transparency International, Economist Intelligence Unit, author's research
sources: World Bank, ITU, Freedom House, Arab Media Centre, Transparency International, Economist Intelligence Unit, author's research
politics = marketing
politics
marketing
political communication
campaign
strategy

consultants
politics = marketing
politics
marketing
political communication
campaign
strategy
consultants
DATA, SEGMENTATION, TARGETING
provide legal, tax, & accounting services -- financial disclosures
expertise in buying media time, placing media commercials
quantitative/qualitative survey research, focus-group, and dial-group findings
voter & demographic database
predictive analysis
focusing on electoral campaign
social media
branding
personalization
intimate relationship/experience
affect/emotion
personal visibility
economy of attention




social media
amplify
personalization
mediatization
popularization
iconic
metanarrative
simple/simplified
meme-able
populist style
authoritarian---------------------------democratic
uni-directional
performing/projecting power
follow none/less
follow less diverse accounts
less replies/dialogues
less/no humour
multi-directional
projecting policy statements
follow more
follow more diverse accounts
more replies/dialogues
more humour
image management
image/personality over substance/policy/ideology
politics = marketing
politics
marketing
political communication
campaign
strategy

focusing on electoral campaign
amplify
social media
personalization of politics
mediatization of politics
popularization of politics
populist style
fundamentalism
exclusionary
tribal nationalism

algorithmic enclaves
ANTAGONISTIC
DATA, SEGMENTATION, TARGETING
Baseline data, by country -- multiple factors
example of techno-landscape data
example of political landscape data
example of media landscape data
scan of "chain networks" of diverse political leadership styles
Saudi: Naser Al Omar
The Philippines : Duterte
Egypt: Alsisi
Malaysia: Najib Razak
Iran: Hassan Rouhani
Indonesia: Joko Widodo
Contextual (National)
Global undercurrent
political landscape
media landscape
techno landscape
socioeconomic landscape
cultural-religious landscape
political landscape
media landscape
techno landscape
socioeconomic landscape
cultural-religious landscape
Al-Khwarizmi
ALGORITHMS
RHYTHMS
RHYTHMS & ALGORITHMS
>>
AlGO-RHYTHMIC

RESEARCH
longue duree
moments-events-history

multiple spatialities/temporalities/materialities

dramatic/mundane
extra/ordinary
global/local
in/visible
dis/appearance
loud/silence

human bodies
the song may end, but the rhythm is here to stay
social media algorithms
sorting algorithms

The Journey
sorting - clustering
efficiency
scale vs speed
shrinking bytes
superlative bias
visibility/popularity
attention economy
affect, emotion
Social media <-> Algorithmic culture
homophily. polarization. filter bubble
fragmented, but connected. antagonistic.
exposure to "the most". "algorithmic enclaves"
"as for squares and roots equal to a number, it is as when you say this: a square and ten of its roots equal thirty-nine dirhams. its meaning is that the square, if you ad to it the equivalent of ten of its roots it will become thirty-nine..."

Malaysia
Hong Kong
multiple rhythms
II
polyrhythm
rhythmic + algorithmic
rhythmic + algorithmic
algorithmic moment
algorithmic process
multiple rhythms => polyrhythms => algorithmic moment
multiple rhythms => polyrhythms => algorithmic moment
rhythms & algorithms
rhythms
when rhythms & algorithms are embodied
recited by M. Zacharia, 2018
social media algorithms are
bias
to the
superlative
Full transcript