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Sports Leadership & Administration

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howon jeong

on 7 September 2016

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Transcript of Sports Leadership & Administration

Sports Leadership & Administration
The nature of administration and management in sport organization
Public relations, partnerships, marketing, and promotion in sport management and physical education
Management functions in sport organization
Financial management in physical education and sport
Communication and motivation in sport management
Purchasing, maintenance, and security management in sports and physical education
Human resources in sport management and physical education
Howon Jeong
1. Learning Objectives
State why a student of sports management or physical education should study administration, and access the benefits and problems associated with administrative position
Establish the need for an administrator to be guided by a philosophy, and the importance of ethics in administrative decisions in physical education and sport
Describe the traditional types of administrators and how each functions
Compare the qualities or skills that will enhance one's chances of being selected for an administrative position, and those necessary for sustained success
Identify how the student of sport management or physical education should start preparing for future administrative posts and what the duties and roles will be in these positions
2. Importance of administration
Experience shows that the critical factor in promoting excellence in the administration of physical education and sports programs has been the quality of the head administrator. So the quality of the program follows the leader in administration.
3. Leadership and administration
Investigate the structure of organizations which you want to work near the future
What is the leadership & administration in sports organization?
4. Why study administration?
Even in their first position, persons in physical education or sport find themselves trust into a administrative situation. The better teacher's or coach's understanding of the system from the administrative perspective, the more efficiently he or she will be able to function within the system and in working with administrator.
Common administrative duties of many teachers/coaches/marketers

Directing intramurals of recreational sports
Managing swimming pool
Participating in parent conferences
Writing standard operating procedures of policy statements
Serving on commodities
5. What are the pros and cons of becoming an administrator?
Increased financial rewards
Professional prestige
Social prestige
Professional challenge
Personal power
Professional achievement
Opportunity to effect positive change
Association with other high-quality leaders
Positive intrinsic psychological rewards
Opportunities for advancement
5. What are the pros and cons of becoming an administrator?
Pressures of in sufficient time to accomplish tasks and long work hours
Loss of personal relationships with students
Reduce time for research and teaching
Pressure of responsibility for programs and personel
Changes in personal associations with faculty and coaches
Pressure of professional and public scrutiny of decisions and programs
Lack of job security
Loss of personal time
6. Philosophy and administration
(1) Idealism
(2) Realism
(3) Pragmatism
(4) Existentialism
(5) Eclecticism
7. Ethics
Ethics tell people how they ought to act. Sport managers must make concrete moral decisions, often under circumstances that are unclear.
Values is something one believes to be desirable, important, and worthwhile. Values can also be positive or negative- good or bad.
Morality teaches people to understand and apply standards from a personal moral point of view as well as to adopt norms for society at large.
Situational ethics or ethical relativism
In practical terms, ethical theories or ethical decision rules result in common maxims such as following:

(1) Act unto others as you would want them to act to you
(2) Act to cause the greatest good for the greatest number
(3) Act in such a way that the action taken under the circumstances could be a universal rule of behavior
(4) Take only actions that would be viewed as proper by impartial professional colleagues
(5) Act in such a way that the actions could be defended comfortably in front of a national audience
8. Types of administrations
1) Laisses-faire: let alone
2) Autocratic or authoritarian
3) Democratic
4) Eclectic
9. Qualities and skills required for leadership
(1) Visibility
(2) Whom you know, or friends in the right places
(3) Image
(4) Enthusiasm, energy and a positive attitude
(5) Assertiveness
(6) Academic record
(7) Personality and sensitivity
1) Qualities and skills that can enhance one's chances of being selected for administration
2) Qualities and skills important for long-term success of a leader
(1) Human relations competencies
(2) Communication competencies
(3) Creativity, flexibility, and vision
(4) Mental quickness
(5) Reliability and courage
(6) Enthusiasm and vitality
(7) Professionalism and technical skills
1. Learning Objectives
Demonstrate through illustrations or descriptions traditional and futuristic organizational structure for physical education and athletic department and sport organization
Describe the relationship of various methods of organizing personnel to function more effectively
Compare and contrast McGregor's theory X and theory Y, quality circles, and theory Z as they apply to sport management
Describe total quality management and give examples of how it could be adapted in sport management situations
Compare and contrast the various types of "power" in personal relationship
Describe leadership behavior of administrators in physical education and sport in theory, modeling, and decision making
Understand the dynamics of supervision in sports management
2. Organization
The term organizational structure is used here to define the manner in which the tasks of a sport organization are broken down and allocated to employees and volunteers, the reporting relationships among these role holders, and the coordinating and controlling mechanisms used within the sport organization
3. Organization theory
Views differ not only on basic organizational structure but also on how the entity should be organized with respect to function and operation.
3-1. Theory X
Most workers are lazy and prefer to be told what to do. Further, theory X administrators believe that staff tend not to assume any more responsibility than necessary and prefer safety and security above all else. Obviously, this type of executive requires a tight auto cratic structure to supervise employees directly, and the staff need to be consistently pressured to maintain adequate performance.
3-2. Theory Y
Theory Y management emphasizes the independence, responsibility, and growth of individuals in organizations. This view holds that the teachers, coaches, sport business employees are basically self directed and can be highly self motivated.
3-3. Quality circles in sports
The quality circle philosophy seeks to enhance mutual respect, open communication, and trust within the group and throughout the organization. Quality circles are small groups of individuals who have similar functions and meet regularly, usually one hour a week, to identify and solve common problems.

The Best ideas for operating or changing an educational program come from teachers or coaches-not from the administrators.
3-4. Theory Z
The whole staff would share in establishing goals and objectives. To successfully implement a theory Z, administration and employees must trust one another, and the staff must have the best interest of program at heart. All employees would also need to become knowledgeable about the resources and problems of whole organization.
3-5. Total quality management
TQM is a process of continuous improvement that is focused on responding to customer needs, basing decisions on data, and allowing everyone to participate in the process.
4. Power
Threat power
Exchange power
Power through integration
Reward power
Coercisive power
Legitimate or authority power
Referent power
Expert power
5. Leadership
Authorship - a sense of pride and satisfaction felt when something unique is created
Love - the caring or a person's compassion and concern of other
Power - the capacity to make a difference and to have an impact
Significance - the dual aspects of importance and meaningfulness
Informative power
Group power
6. Change and Innovation
Establishing a sense of urgency
Forming a powerful guiding coalition
Creating a vision
Communicating the vision
Empowering others to act on the vision
Planning for and creating short-term wins
Consolidating improvements and producing still more change
Institutionalizing new approaches
7. Decision making
Conflict - vigorous debate and cognitive conflict

Consideration - all must recognize and believe that all views were entertained

Closure - becoming adept at knowing when to end deliberations
8. Supervising
1. Learning Objectives
Identify the barriers to effective organizational communication
Describe the components of effective communication
Explain the importance of nonverbal communication
Become acquainted with written communication needs in sport administration
Learn the essentials of leading meetings
Report various strategies that could be followed in motivating staff members to achieve higher performance
2. Communication
Effective communication in organizations has produced the following definitions:

1) Keep people informed
2) Encourage people to express their ideas
3) Listen for understanding
4) Be honest
10 ways to achieve better communication:

1) Understand the purpose of communication-it is designed to achieve a goal
2) Encourage internal customers to get together to discuss the issues
3) Gather additional input
4) Identify your audience
5) Create "key messages"
6) Develop a timeline- in what order do your audiences need to know information?
7) Develop a plan
8) Start on the inside of the organization first
9) Use multiple tools, multiple times
10) Think circular-start with the end in mind
The basic components of communication incorporate the following elements:

1) Originator-the translation of an idea, thought, or description into symbols to convey intended meaning
2) Encoding-finding the right symbols, which are most frequently words
3) Channel-sending a message by speaking, writing, or gesturing
4) Receiving and decoding-for communication the message must be received and then decoded by giving meaning to the message
5) Feedback-an acknowledge that the message was received, such as nod, frown, statement, or question
1) One-way communication down

2) Administration seeking to determine what staff is thinking

3) Participative management
2-1. Evolution of organizational communication
1) Listening

2) Formal and informal

3) Nonverbal and electronic communication
2-2. Method of personal communication
1) The Johari window

2) Conflcit resolution

3) Communicating to participants

4) Policies and procedures
2-3. Innovative communication enhancers
1) Define the purpose
2) Capitalize on what groups do best
3) Rewrite the meeting agenda
4) Avoid common tasks
5) Eliminate unproductive groups
6) Define appropriate topics for the size of the group
2-4. Leading the meetings
the willingness to exert a persistent and high level of effort toward organizational goals, conditioned by the effort's ability to satisfy some individual need
3. Motivation
1. Learning Objectives
Apply equal opportunity employment and affirmative action concepts to physical education or athletic personnel actions
Demonstrate effective interviewing skills
Relate humanistic personnel relations to administration in physical education and sport
Outline modern applications of supervision, staff development, and time arrangement to physical education and sport
Explain the relationship between stress and teacher, coach, and administrator burnout and how each can cope with strees to prevent it.
2-1. Equal employment opportunity(EEO)
Equal employment opportunity means that everyone has an equal chance for employment based on qualifications. Discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, or handicap is prohibited. This concept also applies to training, promotion, position assignment, benefits, discipline, and discharge as well as initial recruitment and employment.
Affirmative action goes beyond EEO because it requires that employers make an extra effort to attract, employ and promote members of minority groups. Affirmative action means to act, rather than to merely react, to minority employment. Affirmative action may be defined as a proactive process of evaluation and corrective action to eliminate past and future discrimination
2-2. Affirmative action
Many social scientists agree that we stimulate higher achievemnet and enrich lives where diverse groups work together. Most institutions in higher education are striving to maintain a diverse faculty and student body.
Problems have emerged, however, when either staff or students are employed or admitted who don't have adequate preparation or skills to succeed. It would appear that the solution is to provide special training for these employees or students so that diversity can be maintained.
2-3. Diversity
Some may argue that if discrimination is wrong, then reverse discrimination must also be wrong
Voluntary methods have not worked, so this proactive system is necessary
Affirmative action is intended to ensure that the best, most qualified person is employed, regardless of gender or race
2-4. Justice for all or preferences for some
Guidelines require an employer to perform a work analysis to determine if any minorities of women are being under-utilized in a group of jobs with similar duties. The key is to determine under-utilization having fewer persons in a specific type of position than would be expected by their statistical availability
2-5. Affirmative action guidelines
List questions should be asked in a interview for recruiting a new trainer
2-6. Employment application form or verbal questions that may be considered unlawful discrimination
2-7. The successful interview from the candidate's perspective
To be a leader in human relations, one must balance being responsive to a business's goals and objectives and remaining an advocate for the needs, feeling, and desires of the staff
3. Personnel services
3-1. Human relations
Encoding skills-being personal
Decoding skills-getting into the other person's world
Cybernetic skills-communicating through body, eyes, word....
Channel skills-setting appropriate mood, tones, and atmosphere
Confrontation skills-placing issue out in the open
Have a teacher and coach from one school visit another to tell and show how we do it
Have a particularly strong teacher put on a clinic for the teachers and coaches in the same school
Bring specialists in from the central office of a large system, state office, or a college
Schedule group projects so that every teacher and coach is responsible for researching a specific part of the program
Arrange to visit other schools or special center; employ substitute teachers to cover classes
Arrange after-school or night courses at the school itself
Rotate equipment or materials among appropriate personnel
Attend workshops and conference
3-2. Staff development
Image that a situation that a conflict might stem from an individual or between individuals
3-3. Conflict resolution
Guidelines to travel from discord to harmony
1) Always keep your door and mind open
2) Hold regular meetings
3) Become a good listener
4) Empower your personnel
5) Provide adequate training
6) Create a policy guide
Stress can be best understood as a discrepancy between the perceived demands of a situation and the perceived abilities to cope with and adapt to those demands.

Burnout is one negative response to stress. It is a multidimensional syndrome characterized by feelings of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment about one's work
4. Stress and burnout
1. Learning Objectives
Define public relation(PR) and common terms associated with it
Describe the scope and importance of PR in physical education and sport and how a PR assessment could be completed
Relate the principles and guidelines of PR to physical education and sport management
Differentiate product, price, place, and promotion within the marketing mix
Describe examples of partnerships in sport and physical education
Identify effective means of improving concession operations and profits at the institution you are attending
Identify examples of PR programs in physical education, sports, or fitness centers
2. Elements of public relations
A good PR program depends on systematic and purposeful evaluation of public attitude. The relevant in-depth data are developed by skilled experts using appropriate instruments and methods. A public relations program should be active, centered on the public interest, and, if the organization is large enough, carried out by quality practitioners.
A PR audit is an examination of the program, its objectives, and results to determine how various constituencies feel about the program and what they know about its accomplishments.

Audits have the following four general categories: (1) identifying the relevant public, (2) determining what these public think of the organization, (3) measuring what the public believe are important issues or concerns, and (4) evaluating the public as to their importance and power.
2-1. The PR audit
Once the audit has been completed, you must integrate the audit with strategy
Public relation in industry vs. sports
2-2. Public relations: scope and importance
1. The foundation of a successful PR is an excellent program
2. PR must be based on the truth and the premise that the public has a right to be informed about the programs
3. PR programs must be continuous
4. A major responsibility is to represent the physical education and athletic programs to the public-to be an advocate and spokesperson
5. The PR program must be based on two-way communication
6. The PR program must explore the use of all forms of media and communication avenues
7. Positive human relations must be developed for a PR program to be successful over the long term
8. Define the particular public groups whose opinions affect the program and structure the PR program to reach them
2-3. Principles and guidelines for public relation
Strategic sport marketing is the process of designing and implementing activities for the promotion and distribution of a sport product or service to the consumer, the result of which satisfies the consumers' desires and the organization's objectives
3. Marketing sport and physical education
Executive summary
Situational analysis
Customer analysis and Target market identification
Goal and objectives
Strategy and tactics
Implementation and control
3-2. Marketing plan outline
3-3. Marketing mix
examples of partnerships, sponsorships, and fund raising in sport and physical education
4. Partnerships, sponsorship and fund raising
1) assessment: to conduct a thorough assessment of the situation
2) alignment: the process whereby all constituencies are brought together "on the same page". The is critical to ensure that all PR, communication, and promotional activities are consistent across the organization
3) Design: a campaign that brings all of elements together
4) Activation: setting a time line and checking to ensure that all activities are on track and operating according to the designed plan
5) Measurement: not only aids in identifying issues with the existing campaign, but also provides feedback for future adjustment to PR, communication, and promotional activities
3-1. Marketing
1. Learning Objectives
Prepare an athletic or physical education budget
Define and use appropriately the terms common to school financial management
Describe the ways in which educational accounting is more complicated than simply reporting and recording figures
Compare and contrast the accounting system object, function, and program recording
Describe the purposes, principles, and steps of bugeting
Discuss the options of the physical education or athletic administrator in the event of an immediate financial need
2. Common financial terms
Account - a financial record containing information about transaction related to expenditures, receipts, assets, fund balances, and liabilities

Accrual accounting - a system in which revenues are recorded when appropriated rather than when received, and expenditures are recorded when ordered, rather than when received and paid for
Capital outlay - an expenditure for property or equipment that has permanent use and value such as land, buildings, permanent equipment, and fixtures

Contingency fund - funds and other resources held in reserve within each budget year to provide for unforeseen problems or emergencies, or for anticipated expenditures of uncertain amounts
Contractual services - services performed on order under an agreement with an outside organization for a set free, such as paying a fee for an equestrian center to provide horseback riding lessons for physical education classes(Outsourcing)

Credit - An increase in funds usually listed on the right side of an account, or a deduction from an expense account

Debit - A decrease in revenue or net worth usually listed on the lift side of the account, or an addition to an expense account
Debt service - Expenditures to retire debts or to pay the interest costs of loans

Direct costs- costs related to a specific program or group of programs

Discretionary funds - money for incidental expenses raised from governmental sources, such as donations or fund-raisers, to be used at the discretion of the custodian of the account
Exigency, financial - an immediate financial need in which action must be taken to reduce expenditures, such as a decree by the board of education to reduce the total budget by 20 percent

Expendable outlays - Equipment and supplies that have a short life and low cost per item. They include such equipment as balls and uniforms, and supplies such as paper and fertilizer

Fiscal year - any one year period at the end of which the school or athletic program closes its books and determines its fiscal condition. In most schools and colleges, the period runs from July 1 through the the end of June.
Petty cash - A small fund, frequently a maximum of $100, available for paying modest obligations: usually under $25, for which issuing a formal purchase order would be time-consuming and expensive

Purchase order - a written request to order the purchase of material or service at a price outlined in the document

Reserve fund - a fund that remains on the hold from one budget year to the next which is invested and thus continuous to grow. This fund is used for major or unforeseen calamities such as a natural disaster that destroys a gymnasium. This is sometimes merged with the capital fund
Sinking fund - a fund that is used to liquidate an obligation, usually with payments on a scheduled basis to complete the payment at a specific time
Appropriation - The amount of funds, according to the budget, set aside in an account and authorized to be expended during the year for a specific purpose

Auditing - an official examination and verification of accounts to determine whether an agency has spent, or is spending, appropriated funds in accordance with the budget

Budget - a statement of the estimate of receipts and disbursement for a period of time
Fixed charge - A financial obligation of a recurring nature incurred at a fixed rate which appears as overhead such as rent, insurance, utilities, and contributions to employee benefits

Indirect costs - costs that are not directly associated with a specific program, such as overhead or general support

Managerial accounting - the system that includes cost accounting and the generation of information for decision-making using accounting data
1. Learning Objectives
Demonstrate how to properly identify equipment needs in physical education and athletics
Describe the entire purchasing process, including the pros and cons of central versus individual purchasing and of direct and bid basis purchasing
Write a specification for an item of equipment
Outline a system of receiving, labeling, inventorying, storing, and issuing equipment
Report special concerns related to the purchase and maintenance of major items of equipment, such as uniforms and balls
Design security systems for physical education and althetic facilities
2. Purchasing
Prompt payment
Early-bird ordering
Prefessional and personal relationships with vendors
Businesslike approach
2-1. Equipment needs based on program
characteristics of programs
2-2. Equipment needs based on inventories
The perpetual inventory
the perodic inventory
the in-stock inventory
the in-use inventory
the projected needs inventory
3. The purchasing process
1. The need must be established
2. The immediate supervisor is consulted
3. A requisition is completed and signed by the designated authorities
4. Appropriate authorities act on the requisition by rejecting, adjusting, or approving it as written
5. Consider a direct purchase from a suitable vendor or the bidding
6. A purchase order
7. A voucher
8. Checking and inspection
9. Paying
4. Case I
How to maximize revenues of the fitness center in A Hotel?
5. Case II
Build the purchasing plan of equipment for the next year!
Human Resource: 5
Time available: 3 months
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