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Transcript of Punctuation Rules
A period is used...
(1) at the end of a declarative or imperative sentence,
(2) after an abbreviation, and
(3) after the initials in a name.
Commas are used...
(1) to separate words in a series of three or more
(2) to separate adjectives of equal importance in front of a noun.
Commas are used...
(3) to set off words in a direct address,
(4) to set off the parts of addresses, place names, and dates,
(5) after the salutation in a friendly letter and after the complimentary close in all letters.
Commas are used...
(6) to set off non-restrictive phrases and clauses.
Mrs. Mr. Ms.
Karen, Sarah, and Gil play basketball for Alliance high school.
Mrs. Michaels is intelligent, humorous, and outdoorsy.
The Oxford Comma
...is the comma that appears before the conjunction "and" in a series of at least three words.
It is optional. Choose to use it or not but CONSISTENT!!!
Dear Mrs. Johnson,
The last time the Red Sox won the World Series in Boston
Massachusetts was on October 30
Kevin, please raise your hand.
a town near Boston
was the site for a new film starring Mark Wahlberg.
which is the sequel to Ted
will be in theaters in 2015.
Exclamation Points !
Question Marks ?
Exclamation points are used after most interjections (Wow!) and to end exclamatory sentences.
DO NOT use these in academic writing!
Question marks are used to end interrogative sentences.
Colons are used...
(1) before a list when terms such as
(2) to separate the chapter and verse in scripture
(3) to separate hours and minutes (3:15)
(4) to show ratios (1:2)
(5) to introduce the logical sequence of action.
The following are places I would like to visit: Ireland, San Diego, and Rome.
Dear Professor Bois:
My favorite biblical reading is Genesis 14:6.
There was only one way he could win: he had to cheat.
Another punctuation option here is a semi-colon.
Quotation marks are used...
(1) before and after direct quotations
Quotation marks are used for the following:
(1) Before and after direct quotations and around the parts of divided quotations.
(2) To set off the titles of short stories, poems, songs, magazines, newspaper articles, episodes of TV series, and radio programs.
"This," cried Uncle Ned, "is not my dog!"
We read the poem "Annabel Lee" by Edgar Allan Poe last year.
"Woman of the Woods" would be the title of my autobiography.
Single quotations are used to set of quoted material within a quotation.
"Have you heard the song 'Call Me Maybe'?" asked Mrs. Michaels.
Italics are used for the titles of books, magazines, newspapers, movies, TV series, ships, and works of art.
has a photograph of Da Vinci's
My favorite television series is
**If you are handwriting, you can UNDERLINE in place of italics!!
Apostrophes are used for the following:
(1) to show possession
(2) to show the omission of letters or numbers
my cousins' dog
I can't sing.
class of '13
Hyphens are used for the following:
(1) to divide a word between syllables at the end of a line
(2) in compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine and to separate parts of some compound words
(3) to form some adjectives
My boyfriend, who lives in California, will be visit-
ing in November.
project is a big undertaking.
Dashes are used for the following:
(1) to indicate a change in thought or an interruption
(2) to surround a series of words, phrases, or clauses
You are the friend--the only friend--who offered to help me.
All things chocolate--cake, truffles, and brownies--are Ms. Bois' favorite desserts.
Commas or parentheses can also be used in these cases.