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AP World Presentation

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Matthew Renfro

on 5 May 2015

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Transcript of AP World Presentation

600-1450
Sam Anderson, Gwyneth Quitorio, Daniele Laval, Clarissa Maloney, Na'imah Muhammad, Gia Nefroney, Matthew Renfro
Europe
Japan
The Toltecs
The Mexica
The Aztecs
The Northern Societies
The Incas
Australia & Pacific Islanders
Americas / Oceania
Arabian / Islamic Empires
Africa
Indian Ocean Basin
China
Mongols/Turkish Nomads

Bantu
West Africa
Ghana and Mali
East Africa
Swahili city-states
religion: Islam and Christianity
trade
trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean basin
Bantu
West Africa
Religion
Trade
East Africa
key to African advancement:
spread iron metallurgy, agricultural techniques => increased land cultivation, encouraged mining and metallurgy
as a result, increased African population


Monsoons
Religions
Population
Indian Society
Spread of Indian influence
Muhammad and his prohet
conflict in mecca
expansion of islam
dynasties ummayad and abbasid dynasty
economy and society of the early islamic world
the organization of trade
islamic values and cultural exchanges
Mali Empire
Sundiata:
built Mali empire first half of 13th century
trans-Saharan trade:
13th-15th century: controlled and taxed almost all trade passing through west Africa
rulers honored Islam and provided comfort for Muslims, encouraging its spread on a voluntary basis.
Mansa Musa:
Mali emperor
pilgrimage to Mecca 1324-1325
made Islam better known in empire

Kingdom of Ghana
became most important commercial site in west Africa (gold, ivory, and slaves)
integration into the
trans-Saharan trade
networks brought enormous wealth and power
Koumbi-Saleh: capital and trading site
by the 10th century, kings of Ghana converted to Islam
=> improved relations with Muslim merchants and nomads
brought recognition and support from Muslim states in north Africa.

Swahili city-states
flourished 1000-1500
all heavily involved in

Indian Ocean trade network
Kilwa
one of busiest Swahili city-states
prime example of benefits of participation in Indian Ocean trade network
Zimbabwe
best known of large and powerful kingdoms in east and central Africa
kings controlled and taxed trade and organized the flow of products on east coast

peoples of sub-Saharan Africa developed a wide range of languages, societies, and cultural traditions
religion took on many forms
(creator god, lesser deities, and diviners)
chief distinction between major societies was whether they adopted
Islam
or not
religion introduced through
trade
(ex/ Arab slave trade, trans-Saharan trade,)
Islam
became one of the principal cultural and religious traditions of east Africa
4th century CE: Christianity established a foothold in the kingdom of Axum
Christianity enjoyed particular favor in Ethiopia
trade along the
trans-Saharan caravan routes
increased
influenced by fall of the Roman empire, expansion of Islam, and formation of strong African states (ex/ Ghana and Mali)
trans-Saharan caravan traffic linked west Africa to larger trading world of the eastern hemisphere
Indian Ocean basin:
the Swahili city-states flourished from trade network
by 11th and 12th centuries: trade brought tremendous wealth to coastal east Africa
expansion of both trade networks stimulated
increased traffic in African slaves
slave raiding
became an increasingly prominent activity within Africa (ex/ Zanj revolt)

Muhammad
key achievements: muhammad left a deep mark on world history when he underwent a profound spiritual experience and realized that their was only on true god allah and spread the religion of islam
during the early 650s muhammads devouts compiled writings of muhammads revelations and compiled them as the Qur'an(holy book of islam)
muhammad the prophet , born about 570 c.e. into a reputable family of merchants in mecca
he was an educated man who married wealthy widow whom he had worked for previously

conflict in mecca
the growing popularity of muhammads preachings brought him into conflict with the ruling elites at mecca

conflict centered around religious issues

muhammads teachings offended many polytheistic arabs

wealthy merchants saw it as a threat when muhammad denounced greed as moral wickedness that Allah would punish


expansion of islam
after muhammads death the islamic community might well have unraveled
and disappered

the islamic community had embarked on a sunningly successful round of military
expansion that extended its political and cultural influence far beyond the boundaries
of arabia

after muhammads death, islamic armies ranged well beyond the boundaries of arabia,
carrying their religion and their authority to byzantine and sasanid territories and beyond

during the rapid expansion islam the empires rulers encountered difficult problems of
governance and administration


during the early decades after Mohammed's death, leaders of the most powerful arab clans
negotiated among themselves and appointed the first four Caliph


political ambitions, personal differences. and disputes soon led to the rise of factions
and parties within the islamic community
The Shia
disagreements over succession led to the emergence of the shia sect, the most important
and enduring of all alternatives to the form of islam observed by the majority of muslims,
known as the sunni islam

the shia sect originally as a party supporting the appointment of ali and his
descents as caliphs

ali was assassinated by his enemies and they imposed their own candidate as caliph
when the prophet died. although persecuted, the shia survived and strengthened its identity
by adopting doctrines and rituals
Umayyad dynasty
after the assasination of ali, the establishment of the ummayyad dynasty (661-750) solved the
problem of succession, at least

the umayyad ranked among the most prominent of the mecca merchant clans, and their
reputation and network of alliances helped them bring stability to the islamic community

established their capitial at damascus, a thriving commercial city in syria, whose central location
enabled them maintain better communication with the vast and still-expanding islamic empire

although umayyad dynasty solved the problem of succession, their tightly centralized rule and the favor they showed their fellow arabs generated an administrative problem.

ruled dar al-islam as conquerors
policies reflected the interests of the arabs military aristocracy

umayyad appointed members of this elite as governors and administrators of conquered lands, and they distributed the wealth that they extracted among this privileged class aka (miliarty aristocrates)

led to deep resentment among conquored peoples and led to restiveness against umayyad rule

umayyad caliphs became alienated from other arabs, devoting themselves to only luxurious living rather than to zealous leadership of the umma

ny the mid century the umayyad caliphs faced not only the resistance of the shia, whose members continued to promote descendants of ali for caliph, but also the discontent of conquered peoples throughout
Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World
in the dar al islam , as in other agircultural societies, peasents tilled the land as their ancestors had done for centuries before them, while manufactureres and merchants supported a thriving urban economy

the umayyad and abbasid empires created a zone of trade, exchange and communication stretching from india to iberia.

the introduction of new crops into the western regions of the islamic world had wide-ranging effects

some new crops had industrial uses such as cotton

increased agricultural production contributed to the rapid growth of cities in all parts of the islamic world

arab women enjoyed rights not accorded to women in many other lands however to ensure the legitimacy of heirs, they subjected the socail and sexual lives of women to strict control of a male guardians






Nara Period (710-794 C.E)
Nara Period was established when an aristocratic clan claimed imperial authority and formed a series of reforms designed to centralize Japanese politics

The court was transformed into a chinese-styled bureaucracy that implemented the equal field system and provided official support for Confucianism and Buddhism

In 710, the capital moved the city at Nara and stood as a replica of the Tang capital at Chang'an

Although Japan did take in a lot of Chinese religious influence during this period, the Japanese still continued to observe the rights of the Shinto which revolved around ancestors and natural spirits


Heian Japan (794-1185 C.E)
During this period local rulers recognized the emperor as Japan's supreme political authority, Japanese emperors served as ceremonial figureheads and symbols of authority

True power laid in the hands of the aristocratic Fujiwara family who controlled affairs behind the throne

A split between publicly recognized imperial authority and a separate agent was responsible for the longevity of the Japanese imperial house

During this period Japanese literature greatly reflected Chinese influence; boys who recieved educations were taught Chinese and the Japanese also developed Chinese characters into their syllabic script
Tale of Genji
The Tale of Genji was wriiten by Murasaki Shikibu, an aristocratic woman who was a lady in waiting at the Heian court

This works relates to to the experiences of of the imperial prince Genji

This writting offers a meditation on the passing of time the sorrow that time brings

Lady Murasaki created one of the most remarkable literary works in the Japanese Language
The Toltecs
Monsoons
Toltecs emerge in the ninth and tenth centuries after the collapse of Teotihuacan
Large, powerful army
Close relations with Gulf Coast and Maya
Tula: Toltec capital and center of trade
Toltec decline after twelfth century
Fostered trade across the Indian Ocean Basin
Diffused ideas, religions, and goods throughout the Indian Ocean Basin
Increased trade caused more specialized goods to emerge
Religions

The Mexica
Trade (fostered by monsoons) help spread religions such as Islam, Christianity and Hinduism
Buddhism met a steady decline in its homeland of India, but it prospered in other regions
Warriors sat at the top of the social hierarchy
Women: no public influence; known as mothers of warriors
Majority of Mexicas were cultivators or slaves
Religion: deities were taken from other Mesoamerican religions
Sui Dynasty (589-618 CE)
Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE)
Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE)
Growth of the Chinese Economy and Socio-Cultural Appropriation
Chinese Foreign Influence
The Aztecs
After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Europe entered a period of political instability. This political instability began to fade with the arrival of new political entities, organizations and rulers. By the end of the Byzantine Empire, Europe had undergone a complete political, religious and cultural restructuring.
Carolingians
Established by the Frankish leader Charles Martel. The Carolingians were the first political entity to reappear in Europe and were able to forge a powerful kingdom that lasted for several hundred years before being brought down by various outside factors. While it did succumb to outside forces, the Carolingians laid the foundation for the future of Europe's political format and the development of its peoples' societies and cultures.
Byzantines
Sui Dynasty (589-618)
The Byzantine empire, unlike its opposite the Roman Empire, did not collapse immediately. Instead, it underwent a period of prosperity and growth. Trade routes flourished increasing the empire's wealth ten-fold and turning it into a flourishing center for artistic and cultural wonders. However, this wealth also brought about its collapse. The tales of Byzantium's wealth drew invaders from across the world, and combined with their already failing theme system, the Empire could no longer sustain itself and fell. Before its collapse the Empire proved to be an important center for European culture, politics and intercontinental relations.
Founded by Yang Jian
House of Sui ruled all of China by 589
Sui Yangdi
Revolts in the 610s and military reverses in Korea weakened military
Second and last emperor assassinated 618
Holy Roman Empire
Aztecs arrived in central Mexico, mid-thirteenth century
Launched military campaigns against neighboring places
Controlled subjects with oppressive tribute obligations
Contributed humans, animals, textiles, pottery, and other goods
Northern Societies
Pueblo and Navajo
Iroquois Peoples
Mound-Building Peoples
Pueblo and Navajo
After the collapse of the Carolingians the next biggest centralized power to arise was the Holy Roman Empire. Founded by a cooperation between the Church and Otto I, the Holy Roman Empire resembled the closest Europe got to reinstating centralized imperial rule. Though often prosperous, the empire failed to reach its true potential due to tensions with the papacy and its neighbors. Despite this, the Holy Roman Empire did represent an important stage in the return of political order in Europe and the development of new political, cultural and religious ideas in the region.
Population
Tang Taizong (627-649)
Early Tang rulers' three successful new policies: specific trade routes, the Equal-Field System, and the Bureaucracy of Merit
Empress Wu Zhao (626-706)
Military conquests
Revolts and nomadic incursions brought down the empire

Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE)
Large settled societies; American Southwest
Based around irrigation and agriculture
Built stone and adobe buildings
Monsoons helped facilitate migration and cross-cultural interactions
Iroquois Peoples
Population Growth in India
Song Dynasty (960-1279)
Population in 600 C.E. stood at 53 million. By 800 C.E. population stood at 64 million and by 1000 C.E. the population grew to 79 million
Indian Society
Social Structure
Agricultural society; eastern woodlands
Five Iroquois nations from Owasco
Strict female/male societal roles
Males hunted and went to war while women took care of the children
Mound-Building Peoples
Eastern North America
Built enormous mounds for ceremonies and rituals
15-38,000 people lived around Cahokia
Burial sites show that they had social classes and trade
No written evidence
Caste system grew in India with rise of merchants' influence
Merchant guilds became more prominent in Indian society and subdivided into different groups based on industry
Religion
Hinduism and Islam gained in popularity in Indian society
Spread of Indian Influence
Southeast Asian rulers adopted political structures (kingship) from India
Religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam spread to Southeast Asian kingdoms
The Indian caste system did not spread to Southeast Asian states
Hinduism and Islam gained in popularity in Indian society by 1000 C.E. while Buddhism and Jainism waned in popularity
HOT DOG IT'S MONGOL TIME!!!!!!
Turkish nomad and Mongolian religion
Turkish and Mongol political entities
Mongol social structures
Mongol military supremacy
Effects of Mongol Empires
Post-Mongol Era
Religion and Turkish Nomads and the Mongols
Turkish nomads largely adopted other religions
Saljuq Turks adopted Islam
Turkish Nomads
Mongols
Tolerated other religions and cultures of conquered peoples
Facilitated spread of religions with the reemergence of the Silk Roads
Turkish and Mongol Political Entities
Turkish
Abbasid Empire
Sultanate of Delhi
Mongol
Mongol Social Structures
Mongol Military Supremacy
Effects of Mongol Empires
The Incas
The Inca settled around Lake Titicaca in the Andean highlands
Inca ruled as a military and administrative elite
Began to cultivate potatoes and herd alpacas and llamas
Used quipu for record keeping; no writing
Trade was limited - only local barter with agricultural goods
The Organization of Trade
when the Sasanid empire was overrun, muslim conquerors brought the presperous trading cities of central Asia under control of the expanding dar al-islam

overland trade traveled mostly by camel caravan, meanwhile innovations in nautical technology contributed to a steadily increasing volume of maritime trade in the red sea

trade benefited also from techiques of business organization

as a result of improved transportation, expanded banking services, and refined techniques of business organization, long distance trade surged in the early islamic world.


Founded by Song Taizu (r. 960-976)
Civil administration, industry, education, arts
Tightly centralized government, financial problems, weak military
Nomad groups brought down the empire
Growth of the Chinese Economy and Socio-Cultural Appropriation
Grand Canal
Paper money first used in 1024
Confucian ideals' effects
Revival of silk roads
Buddhism in China
New inventions
Islamic Values and Cultural Exchanges
since the the seventh century c.e., the quran has served as the cornerstone of islamic society

the formation of islamic cultural tradition
muslim theologians and jurists looked to the quran, stories about muhammads life, and other sources of islamic doctrine in their efforts to formulate moral guidelines appropriate for their society

islamic law by any means erase the differences, but it established a common cultural foundation that facilitated dealings between peoples of various islamic lands and that lent substance to the concept of the dar al-islam

promotion of islamic values
on a more popular level, ulama, qadis, and missionaries helped to bridge differences in cultural traditions and to spread islmaic values throughout the dar al-islam.

formal education also promoted islamic values




Chinese Foreign Influence
Korea engaged in a tributary relationship with Tang China
Vietnam had a heated relationship with Tang China
Organized based on military talent
Allowed foreigners such as Persians to hold government positions
Women were valued more than in other societies
Military was strictly disciplined and structured

Had excellent equestrian skills
Unique and advanced bow and arrow
Could mobilize and maneuver army quickly and efficiently
Horses were bred for stamina and could outrun and outlast enemies

Trade increased
Mongols secured trade routes
Mongols protected and encouraged trade
Facilitated cross cultural interaction
Allowed ideas and disease to spread easily
Increases global connectivity and international communication

Oceania
Australian Nomads
Pacific Islanders
Australian Nomads
Nomadic, foraging socities; did not take up agriculture
Exchanged surplus food during migrations
Aboriginal people had a large focus on the environment and geography
Pacific Islanders
Polynesian mariners went on long distant voyages
Population growth due to large fishing industry
More complex political and social structures
Distinct classes emerged and workers became more specialized
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