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Cold Weather Activities

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by

Andrew Rosca

on 12 January 2014

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Transcript of Cold Weather Activities

cold weather activities
effects of the cold on the human body
cold weather gear
dangers of cold weather activites
normal body temperature is 98.6°F (37°C)
temperatures more then 1-2 degrees below or above can cause malfunction
life-critical organs (brain, heart, liver) very sensitive to temperature changes
body capable of self regulating temperature
overheating leads to sweating
overcooling leads to shivering
increased muscle activity produces heat
a little physiology
How heat loss occurs
muscle activity generates heat
blood transports heat around the body
heat is radiated (lost)
at extremities
where blood flows near the surface of the skin (fingers, wrists ears, limbs, head, neck)
25% of heat loss occurs through the head
literally "low heat" - decrease of body temperature below safe range
Hypothermia
blood flow to extremities is reduced or stopped altogether
heat (and blood flow) is limited to internal organs, especially heart, lungs, and brain
extremities, then limbs, are sacrificed in order to preserve vital organs
Effects
shivering
reduced dexterity
loss of muscle control in limbs
fatigue, lack of energy
poor decision making
gradual loss of consciousness
Hypothermia victims often unaware of it!
can occur even in the absence of obvious cold
water (or a wet body) causes heat to be lost 25 times faster
Frostbite
blood flow greatly reduced or stopped to
fingers
toes
nose
ears
no blood = no heat
tissue can die due to lack of oxygen or...
tissue can simply freeze
tissue loss often irreversible
tingling sensation
burning sensation
numbness
Early Symptoms
Dangerous Terrain
ice
snow
covered potholes
intense reflected light
Wind Chill Factor
loss of heat much faster with air movement
air movement can be
natural (wind, currents)
induced (running, snowmobile, etc.)
general considerations
layers are better than thick clothing
can be adjusted
trap air
waterproof but breathable
protect extremities
protect head and neck
have backup
feet
hands
head & neck
torso and limbs
accesories
wool, fleece
cover ears
versatility
wool, fur, and fleece
good traction
waterproof
breathable
cover ankles
layered socks
tradeoff:
better heat retention (mitts)
better dexterity (gloves)
multiple pairs of gloves
hybrid gloves
breathable
waterproof
abrasion proof
versatile
removable hood
removable liner
visible
thermal underwear
sunglasses
sun screen
hand warmers
reflective foil
water
snacks
dehydration
energy consumption
cold weather first aid
hypothermia
frostbite
move to warm area
remove wet clothing
warm GRADUALLY from inside out
warm (but not hot)drinks
warm compresses to neck, chest, groin
do not massage
do not heat limbs
no alcohol
protect from further exposure
remove wet clothing
warm gradually
avoid using frostbitten fingers or toes
don't thaw frozen tissue
questions?
warm even when wet
cotton
absorbs and retains moisture
Full transcript