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Polyvinyl Chloride

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Asma Al-Sadeq

on 26 April 2014

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Transcript of Polyvinyl Chloride

History of Polyvinyl Chloride
Man has worked hard from the earliest times to develop synthetic materials Alchemists tried to develop new materials which would offer benefits not found in the natural products around him.PVC is one of the oldest synthetic materials with the longest history in industrial production.
The uses of PVC
Some main uses:
1. water pipes, tubings, hoses
2. wire and cable insulation
3. wallpapers
4. clear folders
5. window/door profiles or sidings
6. synthetic leathercloth (for furniture upholstery, diary covers)
7. laminates (such as on gypsum boards or speaker boxes)
8. clothing - fashion, fetish
9. toys - baby toys
10. inflatables - pool toys, waterbeds
How is PVC obtained ?
The chemical process for making PVC involves taking the simplest unit, called the monomer, and linking these monomer molecules together in the polymerisation process. Long molecular chains are formed called polymers (which are also called macromolecules).
The molecular and structural formula of PVC
Molecular formula :- (C2H3Cl)n
Polyvinyl Chloride
Poly(vinyl chloride),
commonly abbreviated PVC, is the third-most widely produced polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.PVC is used in construction because it is more effective than traditional materials such as copper, iron or wood in pipe and profile applications.
Early researchers accidentally discovered PVC on at least two occasions in the 19th century. The first, in 1838, was by the French physicist and chemist
Henri Victor Regnault

and the second in 1872 by the German

Eugen Baumann.
Some benefits:
good fire retardant property (reduced by addition of plasticizers)
Highly tunable properties - from highly rigid to very soft
This is the case for PVC, which is made from vinyl chloride monomer known usually by its initials VCM through polymerisation. Some monomers exist in the form of reactive gaseous chemical substances, and some of these may cause health hazards when in direct contact with humans.In these cases they are manufactured and processed under strict control for health, safety and environmental protection.
On the other hand, polymers such as PVC, which are manufactured from monomers through polymerisation, are solid and chemically stable substances, therefore do not affect human health.
A youtube video about how is PVC obtained
Structural formula
Physical & Chemical Properties
Physical properties
PVC is a thermoplastic polymer. Its properties for PVC are usually categorized based on rigid and flexible PVCs.
A major thermoplastic material with a very wide variety of applications, the essential materials for polyvinyl chloride are derived from oil and salt. The vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is formed by combining ethylene (obtained from oil) with Chlorine (produced from the electrolysis of salt water). VCM molecules are polymerized to form PVC resin, to which appropriate additives are incorporated to make a customized PVC compound.
Chemical properties
PVC compounds are 100% recyclable physically, chemically or energetically. After mechanical separation, grinding, washing and treatment to eliminate impurities, it is reprocessed using various techniques (granulated or powder) and reused in the production.

There are two principal ways of recycling PVC:


Mechanical recycling:
PVC waste is ground into small pieces that can be easily processed into new PVC compounds ready to be melted and formed into new product.

2- Feedstock recycling:
PVC waste is broken right back down into its chemical molecules, which can be used again to make PVC or other materials.
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