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Foundations of Civilization (Prehistory to 300BC)
Transcript of Foundations of Civilization (Prehistory to 300BC)
1.1 Understanding Our Past
What have scholars learned from the ancestors of humans, and how have they done so?
1.2 Turning Point: The Neolithic Revolution
How was the introduction of agriculture
a turning point in prehistory?
1.3 Beginnings Of Civilization
How did the world's first civilizations arise and develop?
Vocabulary ..... write these words in your vocabulary section and define based on the reading from your text.
About 5,000 years ago, people began keeping written records of life.
This marked the beginning of recorded history.
Humans lived a long time before this....a time we refer to as PREHISTORY.
ever heard of PREHISTORIC???
Studying the Historical Past
HISTORIANS study and write about the historical past.
Learn from ARTIFACTS.
Objects made by humans...
clothing, coins, artwork tombstones
written records (tax records, letters)
recent historians can study pictures and films.
Pocket Watch from the RMS Titanic
Historians use these artifacts to determine what types of people lived, how they lived, and why events took place.
Kinda like a detective
Historians want to determine what actually happened in earlier times....determine validity.
Allows them to determine the cause of an event:
and prevent it from happening again.
those who do not learn from the past are doomed to repeat it.
What kinds of evidence do historians use to study the past?
Artifacts such as clothing, coins, artwork, and tombstones; as well as written evidence such as letters or tax records.
Around 150 years ago, people began to study prehistory. Scientists wanted to learn about the origins and development of people.
study of bones to determine how traits change
OR others look at culture
way of life of a society
beliefs, values or practices that are handed down from generation to generation
A specialized branch of anthropology that studies people from the past based on their material remains.
buildings and artifacts
tools, weapons, pottery, clothing, jewelry
Archaeologists find and analyze artifacts to learn about life in prehistory and other historical times.
New discoveries are sometimes made requiring archaeologists to revise their previous conclusions, but we will never truly understand the past.
allows them to draw conclusions about beliefs, values, and activities of a culture
Archaeologists at Work
In the 1800s and 1900s, archaeologists would find a likely place and begin to dig. This was called a site.
Mark the location of each type of artifact on a map and the ground.
This helps them determine what type of activities took place at a certain location.
An area with many bones may have been area of food preparation.
Determining the Age of Artifacts
Geologists can determine the age of rocks found near the artifacts.
Botanists and zoologists use seeds and bones to determine what humans ate.
Climate experts can examine challenges faced by people in Africa or the frozen areas of Europe.
Computers help make more sophisticated models of sites.
Aerial photographs determine topography of area.
Radioactivity can determine age of artifacts.
Dating Material Remains
Relative Dating Methods
Some artifacts (like pottery) change styles over time. Archaeologists can group similar items together and line up from earliest to youngest.
A timeline can be created based on older artifacts being found lower than newer ones.
When the ages of geological features are found, the artifacts found within them can be determined.
Dating Material Remains
Absolute Dating Methods
Bones lose chemical elements at a certain rate. Therefore scientists can determine if bones found around one another were buried at the same time.
All living things contain carbon-14, a radioactive isotope, that decays at a certain rate. Archaeologists can use the remains to date things once alive.
Looking at a tree trunk can determine how old the wood is. Archaeologists can tell how old structures built from wood are.
Discoveries in Africa and Beyond
Before 1950, little was known about early humans.
Prehistoric groups did not have cities, governments, or complex inventions.
Few clues were left of their existence or how they lived.
Archaeologists in East Africa began finding footprints, bones and tools.
This began to give a picture of life in prehistoric times.
In 1930s, Mary and Louis Leakey began searching in a deep Tanzanian cave called the Olduvai Gorge.
Deep in the gorge, they found ancient tools chipped from stone....much older than others previously found.
These were jagged and rough. More recent stone tools were smooth and polished.
Proved ancient peoples had the TECHNOLOGY available to help them survive.
skills and tools people use to meet their basic needs
In 1959, Mary found the skull of an ancient hominid embedded in a rock.
Hominids are early humans and their closest relative to walk on two feet. Humans are the only remaining hominids. (according to Evolutionists)
1979: Donald Johanson found many pieces of a small hominid skeleton.
This was the first time scientists had enough pieces of s skeleton to create a picture of what early hominids looked like.
Named her Lucy, after the Beatles' song
She walked upright and was about
4 ft tall.
Evidence of Early Hominid Groups
Scientists have discovered several groups of hominids that lived over millions of years ago.
Earliest - australopithecines
Lucy and others lived in Africa 7 million years ago.
2 million years ago - Homo habilis
"handy man" because they used hands to make stone tools
used for scraping, cutting, chopping, sawing plants/animals/wood
2 million years ago - Homo erectus
"upright man" because their skeletons show they walked upright
Larger bones and brains and smaller teeth than other hominids
Had more capabilities - may have been the first to be able to use fire
Remains found in Africa and Asia
Homo erectus developed the hand ax.
Used like other tools but allowed them to dig, shatter bone and stone, and bore holes into hard surfaces.
First Finds of Humans Around the World
Between 250,000 and 100,000 years ago, Homo erectus disappeared and a new group emerged.
Homo sapiens are the group that current humans belong to.
Some support the "Out of Africa" theory - Homo sapiens originated in Africa and migrated throughout the world.
Others say Homo sapiens and Homo erectus developed around the same time throughout the world.
Two groups emerged
Early modern man spread throughout the world.
Neanderthals lived mostly in Europe and Africa, and disappeared between 30,000 & 50,000 years ago.
Assessment - Copy and answer the questions. Turn in when complete.
What have scholars learned about the ancestors of humans and how have they done so?
In what ways do archaeologists work with new technologies and other scholars in their work?
What have anthropologists learned about the use of tools in prehistory?
Based on evidence, anthropologists have divided prehistory into two time periods....
Old Stone Age, or PALEOLITHIC PERIOD, lasted from about 2 million years ago until 10,000 BC.
New Stone Age, or NEOLITHIC PERIOD, lasted from 10,000 BC until the end of prehistory.
Both used stone tools in a variety of ways, but during the Neolithic age, technologies were developed that changed life dramatically.
Skills and Beliefs of the Old Stone Age
Early modern humans lived toward the end of the Paleolithic Age.
They were NOMADS.
(people who move around from place to place to find food)
Typically, 20-30 people would live in small groups
They survived by hunting and gathering food.
Men hunted or fished.
Women and children gathered berries, fruits, nuts, grains, roots, or shellfish.
Humans Developed Strategies for Survival
Humans had to depend upon environment for food and survival and adapted to their surroundings.
Tools and weapons were made from available materials - wood, stone, bone
Fires were used to cook food
Animal skins used for clothing.
At some point, they developed a spoken language to communicate.
This could have helped in hunts or plans for the future.
Learned to travel across water --> allowed them to spread out all over the world.
Canoed from SE Asia to ...
...Australia 40,000 years ago.
May have stopped on islands for long periods of time (yr), but at times there were 40 miles of open ocean.
100,000 years ago...began to bury dead with great care
Suggests belief in afterlife
Perhaps similar to this life - buried with tools, weapons, and needed goods for survival.
Anthropologists feel they may have believed in spirits and forces that resided in animals, objects and dreams.
Clues About Early Religious Beliefs
Cave paintings showcase animals
Some believe cave paintings were created as a form of ritual.
What skills did Old Stone Age people develop in order to adapt to their surroundings?
Old Stone Age people learned to make tools and weapons out of stone, bone or wood; built fires for cooking; used animal skins for clothing; developed spoken language; and learned to travel across water.
New Stone Age Begins with Farming
About 10,000 BC, nomads made a breakthrough that would change the world forever....
They learned to farm.
For the first time, people no longer needed to roam about the land to find food.
They were able to create permanent settlements...villages.
This free time, allowed early man to develop new skills and technologies.
The TRANSITION from nomadic to settled life is often called the NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION.
Domestication of Plants and Animals
Early farmers were the first to DOMESTICATE plants and animals.
to raise them in a controlled way that makes them best suited to human use
man may have decided to round up the animals they often hunted
easy way to get meat, skins, milk, and eggs
Learned that planting seeds would allow the plants to grow again next year
Dog was first domesticated in China about 13,000 BC
Dogs could be used to hunt, herd, or as companionship.
Domesticated Animals and Plants
ASIA - goats, sheep, pigs
TURKEY/AFRICA - cattle
SOUTH AMERICA - llamas and alpacas
10,000 - 6,000 BC
AFRICA & SE ASIA - yams
CHINA - millet and rice
CENTRAL AMERICA & MEXICO - gourds and squash
MIDDLE EAST - barley, chickpeas, peas, lentils, wheat
What major lifestyle changes did farming allow people to make?
Farming allowed people to settle permanently, build villages, and develop new skills and technologies such as the domestication of plants and animals.
Neolithic Revolution Brings Dramatic Change
The Neolithic Revolution created one of the greatest changes in life that would not be repeated until the Industrial Revolution in the 1700s AD.
Earliest Villages Established
Built between 10,000-9,000 BC
about the size of a few soccer fields
a few thousand people lived here
surrounded by a huge wall
suggests government capable of organizing construction project
Way of Life Changes
Work was still divided by gender. Men began to take on leadership roles in government, the home, and economy. A council of elders would determine what to plant and when. When food was scarce, war would arise and many men found power as great warriors.
Settled people also had more property than nomadic people.
Some had more possessions than others.
Differences in class began to arise.
The need to grow food led to many new technologies.
ways to protect crops
measure out seed
to know when to plant/harvest
led to calender
oxen and water buffalo
Evidence shows there were workshops for tools.
Others learned to weave cloth.
Pottery was developed for cooking and storage.
These technologies did not develop at the same time throughout the world.
Some took possibly thousands of years to spread to different villages.
Others were invented separately in different parts of the world and show varying degrees of similarity.
The Neolithic Revolution Assessment
1. How was the introduction of agriculture a turning point in prehistory?
2. How do you think the development of spoken language influences the people's development of skills and religious beliefs?
3. How are our lives today affected by the Neolithic Revolution that occurred 11.000 years ago?
4. How is settled village life different from nomadic life? (List at least three reasons.)
5. Summarize the video about Otzi, the Iceman. (This should be at least four sentences.)
(You do not have to write what is in parentheses.)
The Development of Civilizations
Rise of Cities and Civilizations
Features of Civilizations
Changes Over Time
Draw this chart in your notes and complete during the discussion.
Creating villages, like Jericho, were a huge step in human development. Societies were more organized, and technology was becoming more complex. Soon would follow a momentous change in human existence - the development of civilizations.
First Cities and Civilizations Arise
You will be placed in groups and assigned a portion of this section in your textbook (p17-23).
In the time given (20 minute):
Read the portion.
Take any notes on important topics.
Together, make a chart of the information in the text.
You need to become an expert on this section.
Groups will present the information to the class.
We will make a graphic organizer of the information.
Beginnings of Civilization Assessment
How did the world's first civilizations arise and develop?
How were the conditions under which early civilizations developed in Asia and Africa different from those of the Americas?
In early, civilizations, how did religion influence government and social classes?
In what ways were river valleys ideal locations for civilizations to develop?
What roles did government play in early civilizations?
Group 1: First Cities and Civilizations Arise
Group 2: Basic Features that Define Civilization (Organized Governments - Job Specialization)
Group 3: Basic Features that Define Civilization (Social Classes - Public Works)
Group 4: Basic Features that Define Civilization (Writing-Comparing Nomadic Life and Civilizations) + Flow Chart (p. 22)
Group 5: Civilizations Change Over Time (Environment) + Map p. 18
Group 6: Civilizations Change Over Time (p. 23)
Alternate Approach to 1.3
The first CIVILIZATIONS to arise developed near rivers.
Regular water supply
Animals who lived in water and came to drink were food source.
Good for farming.
Flood water provided SILT
Farmers were able to produce a SURPLUS of food.
feed more people
store food for the future
As populations grew, some villages became the world's first cities.
People were able to work at jobs other than farming. Other aspects of life changed as well.
relies on habit, custom, or ritual and tends to not change over time.
This was a break from the traditional economy of early people, who relied on farming and trade.
River Valley Civilizations
Main feature...rise of cities
The world's first
arose independently around river valleys.
a complex, highly organized social order
First Civilizations in the Americas
Unlike early civilizations in Asia and Africa
Arose in highlands (Peru, Mexico, Central America)
People farmed on sides of mountains or marshes
Not all people lived in cities. Some...
continued to hunt and gather.
lived in farming villages.
lived on dry, less fertile land (steppe).
followed herds of livestock (cattle, sheep)
were nomadic and continued to move around.
In what ways were river valleys ideal locations for civilizations to develop?
River valleys were ideal because they provided a water supply, transportation and rich soil to farm.
Six Basic Features That Define Civilization
had hereditary rulers (kings/pharaohs)
established first states (city-states, kingdoms, empires)
government was based on religious authority
written code of laws (Hammurabi Code, Ten Commandments, Twelve Tables)
increased development of metal tools and weapons
plow fields and irrigation
navigate rivers and seas to trade
access to rivers and sea for fishing
fertile soil for farming and animals
cave paintings (hunting/wars)
pictogram shared ideas
writing: sharing ideas over distances
architecture dedicated to gods or kings
The Great Sphinx
most were polytheistic
statues of gods
Hebrews and Jews
ceremonial burial rituals
developed social classes
Egyptian were very rigid and strict
lower classes mainly consisted of slaves
Civilization Changes Over Time
How have different types of challenges encouraged peoples and civilizations to change over time?
Physical challenges (volcanoes, over-farming) have caused people to move. Political challenges (war, expansion) have caused people to accept new ways of life from their conquerors.
relied on the environment for rain and soil (produce crops)
needed resources (stone, timber, metals)
sudden events (over-farming, earthquake, volcano) would change their lives and force them to move away.
have to adapt to scarcity (building materials) by trading or changing materials
Culture Changes Hands
CULTURAL DIFFUSION occurred through migration, trade and warfare.
Disasters, like famine, caused people to move to other cities.
Trade exposed people to different ideas.
the spread of ideas and culture from one people to another
Cities Grow Into City-States
Rulers began to conquer land outside of their own cities forming CITY-STATES.
Rulers, nobles and priests would control land outside the city and forced peasants to give them grain and money.
a political unit that included a city and its surrounding lands and villages
First Empires Are Established
Opposing leaders would rival for land and cities.
The first EMPIRES were created.
Those who were conquered were often treated cruelly.
But, it brought peace among neighboring towns and creating common bonds.
These empires later created a lasting impact on the world that we will learn about next.
this box is not in the notes