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حبيبة الرحمن

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ROWACHOL Rowachol References 6-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borneol http://naturalplantextractborneol.en.ecplaza.net/1.asp7-
8.http://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8697516.htm

9-http://216.122.144.54/cgi-bin/drugcgic/INGR?100942337+0 Side effects:
-Cause drowsiness, confusion, hallucinations, coma, unsteadiness, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach upset, blood cell abnormalities, and severe rashes.
-Allergic reactions Therapeutic effect:

1-Treatment of gallstones.
2-Ingredient in many brands of mouthwash and cough suppressant.
3-Therapy for Acute Non-purulent Rhino sinusitis.
-Anti-inflammatory effects in bronchial asthma.4
Preparation and isolation of cineole volatile oil

Isolation:

The essential oils obtained from the aerial parts, stem, leaf and flower.

Methods:

Water distillation, Steam distillation &Hydro diffusion
Other specialized distillation:
Cohobation, Rectification, Water and steam distillation &Fractional distillation. Properties:
1-Density: 0.9225
2-Melting point: 1.5 ºC
3-Boiling point: 176-177 ºC
4-Refractive index: 1.455-1.46
5-Flash point: 49 ºC

Eucalyptol forms crystalline adducts with halogen acids, o-cresol, resorcinol, and phosphoric acid Side effects:

Excessive flatulence.

Precautions:
Liver disease may alter the response to drugs in several ways. Prescribing should be kept to a minimum in all patients with severe liver disease, especially if jaundice, ascites, or evidence of encephalopathy present. Therapeutic effect:

Camphene is used as an alternative lipid lowering agent as it reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides.
It also has a carminative effect Natural source of camphene:

It is a minor constituent of many essential oils such as turpentine (from pine), cypress oil, camphor oil, citronella oil,neroli, ginger oil, and valerian.
It is produced industrially by catalytic isomerization of the more common alpha-pinene. Chemical structure camphene:
2of ,2dimethyl-3-methylene-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane Camphene

Camphene is bicyclic monoterpene. It is nearly insoluble in water, but very soluble in common organic solvents. It volatilizes readily at room temperature and has a pungent smell.
Safety:

WARNING: Irreversible damage risk, protect skin/eyes/lungs

Therapeutic effect

Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effect.

Side effects and precautions:

According to the results of medical experiments borneol may induce miscarriage at middle and late pregnancyin mice. So, pregnant woman should stay away from it. 6-Freezing/Melting Point: 207-208

insoluble 7-Solubility in water:

C10H18O 8-Molecular Formula:

9-Molecular Weight: 154.25

10-Stability : Stable. Light sensitive. Combustible Incompatible with strong acide -strong oxidizing agents. Physical and chemical properties:

1-Physical State: Crystalline powder
2-Taste: Pungent and bitter in flavor
White 3-Color:
4-Specific Gravity: 1.08
5-Boiling Point: 210 ̊C In the ketone (camphor) form: -
It is said to occur in the camphor tree of Borneo and Sumatra (Dryobalanops camphora). Borneol natural source:

-Borneol is extracted from fresh leaves of Blumea Balsamifera. It can also be found in several species, here are examples:
Dipterocarpaceae (lDipterocarpus turbinatustree),Lamiaceae (Rosmarinus officinalis orSalvia officinalis),Valerianaceae (Valerianaofficinalis) or Asteraceae (Matricariachamomilla) Borneol chemical structure:
-Borneol is a bicyclic organic compound and a terpene.Borneol is easily oxidized to the ketone yielding (camphor).
-Naturally occurring d-(+)-borneol is optically active Therapeutic effect:

-Help in the antibacterial action of the drug and remove the inflammation.

-Beta pinene mostly affects the brain, while alpha pinene mostly affects the body.

Side effects & precautions:

-Can be irritating to skin, mucous membranes.
-No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction with the proper external administration may cause allergy in case of used extremely in this drug. Isolation& preparation

It is obtained from oil of turpentine by either :
-Fractional distillation of oil of turpentine and collection of the fraction containing alpha-pinene
-Precipitation as its crystalline nitroso-chloride (with Tilden's reagent), from which it is regenerated by treatment with aniline. Pinene
Pinene (C10H16) is a bicyclic monoterpene chemical compound. There are two structural isomers of pinene found in nature: α-pinene and β-pinene.
Bata pinene Alpha pinene Side Effects no untoward side effects have been reported aslight taste of peppermint.
May occur initially Interactions with Menthol: 1-Menthol has been shown to affect the pharmacokinetics of the drug by inducing or inhibiting cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes and slowing drug absorption.
2.- Menthol affects the coagulation time.
3.- With repeated or prolonged administration, Menthol is also reported to reduce sensitivity to noxious chemicals, including nicotine. Rowachol drug interactions due to Menthol:

Rowachol interacts with anti-coagulants or drugs dependent on the liverfor metabolism and excretion.

Examples for the drugs having drug-drug interactions with rowachol:

1-)WARFARIN, an oral anti-coagulant (OAC) drug is highly effective in preventing the thromboembolic conditions. Second: Menthol works so well on those aching muscles because it triggers a process called vassodilation. Blood vessels in the area widen, increasing blood flow to the area, this increased blood flow itself bring nutrients necessary for cellular repair and carry away waste.

Third : Menthol brings a wonderful cooling sensation by stimulating thermo receptors in the skin cells which help your body recognize temperature changes relieving the uncomfortable heat of inflammation. 2- ) Relief pain sensation

Mechanism of action

Menthol actually tackles pain in three different ways all at once
First: Menthol activates certain opioid receptors in the brain, which means it causes a natural analgesic reaction. This is perfect for relieving minor cramps and muscle aches N.B: The choleresis produced by Rowachol increases insulin production, assisting in the control of diabetic states.
Therapeutic effects of Menthol: 1- ) Stimulation of bile flow

Mechanism of action

Menthol in Rowachol increases biliary secretion, relieves spasm of the bile ducts, enhances metabolic liver function by reducing biliary stasis. By inhibiting HMGCoA reductase (which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol in the liver ), endogenous cholesterol production is reduced, maintaining the bile above saturation level, assisting the dissolution of gallstones and preventing the precipitation of further stones. The choleresis produced by Rowachol is due to Terpenes properties of Menthol. 3-. Physical properties of Menthol:

1-White or Colorless, Hexagonal, Needle Like Crystals, With Clear Mint Odor
2.-Slightly soluble in water, soluble in organic solvents
3.- Melting Range 42˚C to 44˚C
4.- Boiling point 212˚
-4 to 51:5. Specific Optical Rotation
6. Irritant & flammable Fractional distillation process yields pure menthol as fraction which is slowly cooled and then crystallized. The chilling is done at temperatures of -40°C that helps in separation of menthol 2-Isolation and preparation:

Peppermint oil is extracted from the whole plant above ground just before flowering. The oil is extracted by steam distillation from the fresh or partly dried plant and the yield is 0.1 - 1.0 %. 1-Natural sources of Menthol
Menthol is found in peppermint oil of Mentha piperita,
Family: Lamiaceae

Menthol is also found in Mentha Arvensis,
Family: Lamiaceae
Mentha Herb Arvensis leaves contain about 70% of Menthol. Main Active Constituent Menthol(32 mg.)
Menthol is a monocyclic terpene alcoholwith the chemical formula C10H20O that occurs naturally in mint and some other plants. N.B: This medicine is available without prescription.However, you still need to take Rowachol® carefully to get the best results from it. Precautions:

Although no teratogenicity effects have been reported, it is advisable that pregnant women should not take Rowachol during the 1st trimester of pregnancy.
It is also not recommended for women to take this medicine while breastfeeding.
Care should be exercised in the dosage of patients receiving anticoagulants or drugs dependent on the liver for metabolism and excretion. Reducing fat intake in the diet is advisable. 3-Dosage forms of Rowachol: Capsules –drops- syrups.

4-Dosage (for capsules):

Adults: 1-2 caps 3 times daily before meals or as directed by the physician.
Children from 6-14 years: 1 caps twice daily before meals.

5-Administration: Should be taken orally on an empty stomach. Take before meals.

6-Side Effects: No untoward side effects have been reported. A slight taste of peppermint may occur initially.

None known 7-Contraindication: 1-What Rowachol® contains?

α−Pinene 13.6 mg, β−Pinene 3.4 mg, Menthol 32.0 mg, Menthone 6.0 mg, Borneol 5.0 mg, Camphene 5.0 mg, Cineole 2.0 mg. The other ingredient is Virgin Olive Oil.

2-What it is used for?
1-Rowachol® is intended for use in dissolving or disintegrating of gallstones.
2-Cholecystitis - inflammation of the gall bladder. Rowachol References 1-http://www.smallflower.com/brand/rowa
2-http://www.medical-explorer.com/drugs-r/rowachol_1.html
http://www.mims.com/Malaysia/drug/info/Row
achol/?q=rowachol&type=full


3-http://tobacco-information.bhp.doh.gov.tw/toxicfolder/011.%E5%B8%9D%E5%9C%8B%E8%8F%B8%E8%8D%89/839.pdf
4-http://resources.purematters.com/herbs-supplements/s/scotch-pine
5- Phyto-chemistry Book Preparation: Water Extraction coupling Rectification (WER) and Steam Distillation (SD) technologies were applied to extract the cineole oil. Cineole Chemical structure:
Molecular structure: C10H18O
 
Common name: Eucalyptol
 
Natural source: The Tasmanian Blue Gum, Southern Blue Gum or Blue Gum, (Eucalyptus globulus) is an evergreen tree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia. Natural source : from water: Very low
turpentine that we get by distillation of pine resin as alpha & beta the
main active constituents of it.
Properties:
1-Molecular formula: C10H16
2-Molar mass: 136.23 g mol−1
3- Appearance: Clear colorless liquid
4-Boiling point: 155 °C
5-solubility in water: very low 2- )ZOLADEX

Many drugs may be typically absorbed through your metabolism making use of digestive enzymes produced in the liver and other bodily organs, while ZOLADEX lowers theconcentration of these kinds of digestive enzymes, in that case the Zoladex might end up gathering to dangerous quantities within your body. References 1-http://www.smallflower.com/brand/rowa
2-http://www.medical-explorer.com/drugs-r/rowachol_1.html
http://www.mims.com/Malaysia/drug/info/Row
achol/?q=rowachol&type=full


3-http://tobacco-information.bhp.doh.gov.tw/toxicfolder/011.%E5%B8%9D%E5%9C%8B%E8%8F%B8%E8%8D%89/839.pdf
4-http://resources.purematters.com/herbs-supplements/s/scotch-pine
5- Phyto-chemistry Book Side effects:
-Cause drowsiness, confusion, hallucinations, coma, unsteadiness, weakness, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach upset, blood cell abnormalities, and severe rashes.
-Allergic reactions Therapeutic effect:

1-Treatment of gallstones.
2-Ingredient in many brands of mouthwash and cough suppressant.
3-Therapy for Acute Non-purulent Rhino sinusitis.
4-Anti-inflammatory effects in bronchial asthma. Preparation: Water Extraction coupling Rectification (WER) and Steam Distillation (SD) technologies were applied to extract the cineole oil.
Preparation and isolation of cineole volatile oil

Isolation:

The essential oils obtained from the aerial parts, stem, leaf and flower.

Methods:

Water distillation, Steam distillation &Hydro diffusion
Other specialized distillation:
Cohobation, Rectification, Water and steam distillation &Fractional distillation. Properties:
1-Density: 0.9225
2-Melting point: 1.5 ºC
3-Boiling point: 176-177 ºC
4-Refractive index: 1.455-1.46
5-Flash point: 49 ºC

Eucalyptol forms crystalline adducts with halogen acids, o-cresol, resorcinol, and phosphoric acid Side effects:

Excessive flatulence.

Precautions:
Liver disease may alter the response to drugs in several ways. Prescribing should be kept to a minimum in all patients with severe liver disease, especially if jaundice, ascites, or evidence of encephalopathy present. Natural source of camphene:

It is a minor constituent of many essential oils such as turpentine (from pine), cypress oil, camphor oil, citronella oil,neroli, ginger oil, and valerian.
It is produced industrially by catalytic isomerization of the more common alpha-pinene. Chemical structure camphene:
2of ,2dimethyl-3-methylene-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane Camphene

Camphene is bicyclic monoterpene. It is nearly insoluble in water, but very soluble in common organic solvents. It volatilizes readily at room temperature and has a pungent smell.
Safety:

WARNING: Irreversible damage risk, protect skin/eyes/lungs

Therapeutic effect

Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effect.

Side effects and precautions:

According to the results of medical experiments borneol may induce miscarriage at middle and late pregnancyin mice. So, pregnant woman should stay away from it. 6-Freezing/Melting Point: 207-208 C

7-Solubility in water: soluble

8-Molecular Formula: c10H18O

9-Molecular Weight: 154.25

10-Stability : Stable. Light sensitive. Combustible Incompatible with strong acids -strong oxidizing agents. Physical and chemical properties:

1-Physical State: Crystalline powder
2-Taste: Pungent and bitter in flavor
3-COLOUR WHITE
4-Specific Gravity: 1.08
5-Boiling Point: 210 ̊C Borneol natural source:

-Borneol is extracted from fresh leaves of Blumea Balsamifera. It can also be found in several species, here are examples:
,Lamiaceae (Rosmarinus officinalis orSalvia officinalis),Valerianaceae (Valerianaofficinalis) or Asteraceae (Matricariachamomilla) Therapeutic effect:

-Help in the antibacterial action of the drug and remove the inflammation.

-Beta pinene mostly affects the brain, while alpha pinene mostly affects the body.

Side effects & precautions:

-Can be irritating to skin, mucous membranes.
-No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction with the proper external administration may cause allergy in case of used extremely in this drug. Isolation& preparation

It is obtained from oil of turpentine by either :
-Fractional distillation of oil of turpentine and collection of the fraction containing alpha-pinene
-Precipitation as its crystalline nitroso-chloride (with Tilden's reagent), from which it is regenerated by treatment with aniline. Natural source :
from
turpentine that we get by distillation of pine resin as alpha & beta the
main active constituents of it.
Properties:
1-Molecular formula: C10H16
2-Molar mass: 136.23 g mol−1
3- Appearance: Clear colorless liquid
4-Boiling point: 155 °C
5-solubility in water: very low Pinene
Pinene (C10H16) is a bicyclic monoterpene chemical compound. There are two structural isomers of pinene found in nature: α-pinene and β-pinene.
Bata pinene Alpha pinene 2- )ZOLADEX

Many drugs may be typically absorbed through your metabolism making use of digestive enzymes produced in the liver and other bodily organs, while ZOLADEX lowers theconcentration of these kinds of digestive enzymes, in that case the Zoladex might end up gathering to dangerous quantities within your body. Rowachol drug interactions due to Menthol:

Rowachol interacts with anti-coagulants or drugs dependent on the liverfor metabolism and excretion.

Examples for the drugs having drug-drug interactions with rowachol:

1-)WARFARIN, an oral anti-coagulant (OAC) drug is highly effective in preventing the thromboembolic conditions. Second: Menthol works so well on those aching muscles because it triggers a process called vasodilation . Blood vessels in the area widen, increasing blood flow to the area, this increased blood flow itself bring nutrients necessary for cellular repair and carry away waste.

Third : Menthol brings a wonderful cooling sensation by stimulating thermo receptors in the skin cells which help your body recognize temperature changes relieving the uncomfortable heat of inflammation. 2- ) Relief pain sensation

Mechanism of action

Menthol actually tackles pain in three different ways all at once
First: Menthol activates certain opioid receptors in the brain, which means it causes a natural analgesic reaction. This is perfect for relieving minor cramps and muscle aches N.B: The choleresis produced by Rowachol increases insulin production, assisting in the control of diabetic states. 3-. Physical properties of Menthol:

1-White or Colorless, Hexagonal, Needle Like Crystals, With Clear Mint Odor
2.-Slightly soluble in water, soluble in organic solvents
3.- Melting Range 42˚C to 44˚C
4.- Boiling point 212˚
-4 to 51:5. Specific Optical Rotation
6. Irritant & flammable 2-Isolation and preparation:

Peppermint oil is extracted from the whole plant above ground just before flowering. The oil is extracted by steam distillation from the fresh or partly dried plant and the yield is 0.1 - 1.0 %. 1-Natural sources of Menthol
Menthol is found in peppermint oil of Mentha piperita,
Family: Lamiaceae

Menthol is also found in Mentha Arvensis,
Family: Lamiaceae
Mentha Herb Arvensis leaves contain about 70% of Menthol. Main Active Constituent Menthol(32 mg.)
Menthol is a monocyclic terpene alcoholwith the chemical formula C10H20O that occurs naturally in mint and some other plants. N.B: This medicine is available without prescription.However, you still need to take Rowachol® carefully to get the best results from it. Precautions:

Although no teratogenicity effects have been reported, it is advisable that pregnant women should not take Rowachol during the 1st trimester of pregnancy.
It is also not recommended for women to take this medicine while breastfeeding.
Care should be exercised in the dosage of patients receiving anticoagulants or drugs dependent on the liver for metabolism and excretion. Reducing fat intake in the diet is advisable. 3-Dosage forms of Rowachol: Capsules –drops- syrups.

4-Dosage (for capsules):

Adults: 1-2 caps 3 times daily before meals or as directed by the physician.
Children from 6-14 years: 1 caps twice daily before meals.

5-Administration: Should be taken orally on an empty stomach. Take before meals.

6-Side Effects: No untoward side effects have been reported. A slight taste of peppermint may occur initially. 1-What Rowachol® contains?

α−Pinene 13.6 mg, β−Pinene 3.4 mg, Menthol 32.0 mg, Menthone 6.0 mg, Borneol 5.0 mg, Camphene 5.0 mg, Cineole 2.0 mg. The other ingredient is Virgin Olive Oil.

2-What it is used for?
1-Rowachol® is intended for use in dissolving or disintegrating of gallstones.
2-Cholecystitis - inflammation of the gall bladder. Rowachol References 6-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Borneol http://naturalplantextractborneol.en.ecplaza.net/1.asp7-
8.http://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8697516.htm

9-http://216.122.144.54/cgi-bin/drugcgic/INGR?100942337+0 Cineole Chemical structure:
Molecular structure: C10H18O
 
Common name: Eucalyptol
 
Natural source: The Tasmanian Blue Gum, Southern Blue Gum or Blue Gum, (Eucalyptus globulus) is an evergreen tree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia. Therapeutic effect:

Camphene is used as an alternative lipid lowering agent as it reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides.
It also has a carminative effect In the ketone (camphor) form: -
It is said to occur in the camphor tree of Borneo and Sumatra (Dryobalanops camphora). Borneol chemical structure:
-Borneol is a bicyclic organic compound and a terpene.Borneol is easily oxidized to the ketone yielding (camphor).
-Naturally occurring d-(+)-borneol is optically active Side Effects no untoward side effects have been reported aslight taste of peppermint.
May occur initially Interactions with Menthol: 1-Menthol has been shown to affect the pharmacokinetics of the drug by inducing or inhibiting cytochrome P450 iso-enzymes and slowing drug absorption.
2.- Menthol affects the coagulation time.
3.- With repeated or prolonged administration, Menthol is also reported to reduce sensitivity to noxious chemicals, including nicotine.
Therapeutic effects of Menthol: 1- ) Stimulation of bile flow

Mechanism of action

Menthol in Rowachol increases biliary secretion, relieves spasm of the bile ducts, enhances metabolic liver function by reducing biliary stasis. By inhibiting HMGCoA reductase (which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol in the liver ), endogenous cholesterol production is reduced, maintaining the bile above saturation level, assisting the dissolution of gallstones and preventing the precipitation of further stones. The choleresis produced by Rowachol is due to Terpenes properties of Menthol. Fractional distillation process yields pure menthol as fraction which is slowly cooled and then crystallized. The chilling is done at temperatures of -40°C that helps in separation of menthol 7-Contraindication: NOT KNOWN
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