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OPV Withdrawal and IPV Introduction

For more infomation visit: http://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/poliomyelitis/inactivated_polio_vaccine/en/.
by

Lauren Platt

on 19 June 2015

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Transcript of OPV Withdrawal and IPV Introduction

1
2
3
tOPV
tOPV
tOPV
tOPV
with
1
3
bOPV
bOPV
bOPV
bOPV
Oral Polio Vaccine
Wild Poliovirus [WPV]
I
WPV1
WPV2
WPV3
1
2
3
WPV 2
14 years later...
Decrease VAPP
in RARE circumstances, the vaccine-virus can cause POLIO
tOPV
is
Polio
Through
immunization,
with
trivalent
Type 3
OPV
Type 1 OPV
Type 2
OPV
WPV 3
1
3
There are important
of ping the use of
Type 2 OPV
Vaccine Derived Polio Viruses
Decrease VDPVs
it is estimated that this happens 1 in every 2.4 million OPV doses
Remember
WPV 2
which is a
weakened
version of
Wild Polio
contains
viruses
Therefore
EVENTUALLY
we must
meaning
we call this
we are going to start with the
withdrawal
of
Type 2 OPV
WPV 1
WPV 3
once
and
NOTE:
are also eradicated
we will
using
Type 1 OPV
and
Type 3 OPV
1
2
3
tOPV-
bOPV
Switch
Instead of receiving
children will be given
the protection
will be
WHAT?
t PV
There are 3 types of
WPV 1
But
preventable
For the past 25 years,
a
3
in
1
vaccine
Combined
WPV 1
WPV 2

are so weak
they don't cause
POLIO
when
is given to a
the child develops
IMMUNITY
so when any poliovirus attacks
ERADICATED
350,000
Children were being paralyzed
1988
every year
by wild polioviruses

and if a child is
Life-long
THREE
types
poliovirus can cause...
WPV 3
WPV 2
these weak versions are called
Type 1 OPV
,
Type 2 OPV
, and
Type 3 OPV
OPV
or
is made
because it
targets
THREE
viruses
WPV 3
WPV 1
WPV 2
the child
is safe
When Polio Eradication started in
WPV 2
the last case of endemic
1999
and since then
ZERO
cases of
and in
In Aligarh, Western Uttar Pradesh, India
the first miracle of polio
eradication happened
POLIO
WPV 2
in history
with any of the
P li B sics
contains
Type 2 OPV
using
which makes about 250-500 cases globally each year
this is called
Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Polio
[VAPP]
Accelerate Eradication of
because when
Type 2 OPV
is removed from tOPV
children have better protection
against
Type

1
+
Type 3
polio
How will OPV cessation exactly work?
b PV
1
3
because bOPV is more
powerful against
WPV1
+
WPV3
than tOPV
let's start with some...
Paralysis
to make
Then
and
are
Because approximately
30-40%
of VAPP cases are caused by
Type 2 OPV
ping the use of
Type 2 OPV
will the number of
VAPP cases
1
2
3
is the switch?
1
2
3
and being protected
against 3 types
against
WPV1
and
WPV3
infected
Benefits
[VDPDs]
So,
THE
1
2
3
was reported.
Type 1 OPV,
Type 2 OPV,
Type 3 OPV
POLIO

have been detected
Appears to be
In the first instance, through
OPV

But before
recommended:
"All countries should
1
3
1
2
3
tOPV-
bOPV
Switch
THE
of
to the routine immunization
schedule."
add at least 1 dose
oliovirus
accine
nactivated
I
P
V
should countries introduce IPV?
Why
SAGE
Nov 2012
Remember?
a child has protection
after bOPV
but not protection against
type 2 polioviruses
children are still at risk of
and although children don't need protection against
WPV 2
type 2 WILD poliovirus
type 2 vaccine-derived polio
against
type 1
and
type 3
IPV
Intro
Risk Mitigation
Strategy
outbreaks
In summary
to prevent
and an added bonus
stronger protection against and
WPV 1
WPV 3
VDPV2
Boost in
type 1
and
type 3
Type 2
immunity
immunity
Resulting in:
The Solution?
+
VDPV2
Inactivated Polio Vaccine
and
1
2
3
But we are still
using trivalent OPV
tOPV
which contains
Type 2 OPV
Questions?
visit: http://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/poliomyelitis/inactivated_polio_vaccine/en/index.html
for more info
has been the
main vaccine

tOPV
1
2
3
by weakening polioviruses
Learn
Plan
Immunize
Monitor
The
viruses
contained in are weakened.
because it is the only way to ensure a
In even rarer circumstances these stronger viruses can cause polio.
Type 2
or accidental release of
type 2 wild polio
from a
laboratory or manufacturing site
tOPV
OPV
OPV
OPV
used to eradicate polio
and
containing only:

Type 1 OPV
and
Type 3 OPV
the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization [SAGE]
the independent body of experts which advises the
on all matters relating to immunization
There is no risk of
vaccine-related polio with IPV
which means
they
cannot mutate!
So
Mutate
into stronger viruses.
But on rare occassions can
free of all polioviruses
(wild and vaccine-related)
When the time comes
every country
in
will replace their vials of
using
the world
OPV
is made from inactivated
(killed)

vaccine-viruses
Note:
WPV 3
eradication of
TO ACCELERATE

WPV 1
and
TO ACCELERATE
wild poliovirus eradication
TO PROTECT against
type 2 vaccine-derived polio
VDPV2
TO ACCELERATE
OPV
Until they
OPV
OPV
was chosen as the primary tool for polio eradication
OPV
and because
WPV2
appears to be
Withdrawal
WPV 2
eradicated
WPV1
WPV3
AND although the child won't be protected against
type 2 polioviruses
stronger
So...
OPV Withdrawal
and
IPV Introduction
because of its unique ability to reduce
person-to-person transmission
of poliovirus.
98% of
cVDPVs
originated from
Type 2 OPV
reported in the past 5 years
Type 2 OPV
VDPV2
So, ping
Type 2 OPV
will
cVDPVs
circulating VDPVs
are mutated forms of the weakened vaccine-viruses originally
this is what is called:
and even
that they are again able to cause
these weakened virus strains can mutate to the point
contained in OPV.
On very rare occasions and over time
paralytic polio
naturally occuring
appears to be
eradicated
eradicated
appears to be
polio outbreaks
1 dose
of IPV
Full transcript